Sophomore Year / Third Semester

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text Books:
1. M. Morris Mano, “Computer System Architecture”, Prentice-Hall of India, Pvt. Ltd., Third edition, 2007

Reference Books: M. Morris Mano “Digital Design”, Pearson Education, Third Edition , M. Morris Mano “Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, Pearson Education, 2nd Edition Updated.

Course Synopsis: This course gives the fundamentals knowledge concern with the way the hardware components are connected together to form a Computer system and how they interact to provide the processing needs of the user.


  • Introduces the fundamental concepts behind the design working and organization of a computer system.
  • Instruction set architecture, memory hierarchies and interconnection.

Course Contents:

Unit 1: Data Representation (4 Hrs.)
Complements, Fixed point representation, Floating -Point Representation, Gray Code, Error Detection Codes

Unit 2. Micro-operations (5 Hrs)
Arithmetic Micro-operations, Logic Micro-operations, Shift Micro-operations, Arithmetic Logic Shift Unit

Unit 3. Fundamental of computer Organization and Design (7 Hrs)
Computer Register, Computer Instructions, Instruction Cycle, Input and Output Interrupt, Basic Computer Design and Accumulator Logic

Unit 4. Control unit (5 Hrs)
Control Memory, Hardwired Control, Microprogrammed Control

Unit 5: Central Processing Unit (4 Hrs.)
Register Organization, Register Stack a memory Stack, One address and two address instruction, Addressing Modes, Data Transfer and Manipulation, Introduction to RISC and CISC.

Unit 6. Fixed Point Computer Arithmetic (5 Hrs)
Addition and Subtraction, Multiplication Division Algorithm,

Unit 7. Input and Output Organization (6 Hrs)
Introduction to Peripheral Devices, I/O interface, Direct Memory Access (DMA), I/O Processor, Data communication processor

Unit 8. Memory Organization (6 Hrs)
Hierarchy of Memory System, Primary and Secondary Memory, Virtual Memory, Memory Management hardware

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs) + Lab (3 Hrs)

Text Books:
C++ How to Program; Deitel & Deitel , 3rd Edition, PEARSON.

Reference Books:
Object Oriented Programming in C++; Robert Lafore, Third Edition GALGOTIA.

Course Synopsis: Study of basic Programming skills, the concept of object oriented and its features, implementing the features.

Goal: To provide the object oriented programming approach to solve the problem.

Course Contents:

Unit 1: (11 Hrs)
1.1 Introduction to Programming Concept: Overview of structural programming approach, Object oriented approach, Features of object oriented Languages, Components of objects oriented languages like object, class.
1.2 Elements of Object Oriented Languages: Introduction to inheritance, polymorphism, abstraction.
1.3 C++ basics: Introduction, Basic Program, Construction like functions and program statements . Output using cout, Directives: Preprocessor Directives, Header Files, The using directives. Comments: Comment Syntax. Integer Variables: Definition, declaration, Variables names, assignment statements, integers constant, output Variables. Input with cin, Operators, Library functions.

Unit 2: (15 Hrs)
2.1 Control Structures: Introduction, control statements, The if selection structure, The if/else selection structure , The while structure , The For structure , The switch structure, The do/ while structure, The break and continue statement.
2.2 The Functions: Introduction, Math library functions, Definition/ Prototypes, Header files, Storage classes, Scope rules, Recursion, Inline functions, Functions Overloading, Function Templates.
2.3 Arrays: Introduction, Declaring arrays, Passing arrays to functions, Types of arrays.
2.4 Pointers: Introduction, Pointer variables declaration and initialization, Operaters in pointers, Calling functions by reference, Relationship between pointers & arrays, arrays of pointers, Function pointers.

Unit 3: (19 Hrs)
3.1 Classes & Objects: Introduction, Features of class, Object and its features, Declaration of class, Using the class, Accessing members of class, Class scope, Initialization class objects: Constructor, Destructor. Object as function arguments: Overload constructor, Member functions defined outside the class, Objects as arguments.
3.2 Operator Overloading: Introduction , Fundamental of operator overloading , Restriction on operator overloading, Operator function as a class member, Overloading stream-insertion and stream-extraction operators, Overloading unary and binary operators.
3.3 Inheritance: Introduction, Types of inheritance, Protected members, Casting base class pointers to derived- class pointers, Public, Protected, and Private inheritance. Constructor and Destructor in derived classes.
3.4 Virtual Functions & Polymorphisms: Introduction, Types fields & switch statements, Virtual functions, Abstract base classes & Concrete classes, Polymorphism and its roles.
3.5 Templates: Introduction, Functions templates, overloading templates functions, class templates, templates & inheritance.
3.6 Exceptional Handling: Introduction, Use of exceptional handling, Try, throw and catch.

Laboratory Works:
The laboratory work should include above mentioned features

Assignments should be given from the above units in throughout the semester.

Prerequisites: C

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text Books:

  1. Modern Operating Systems: Andrew S. Tanenbaum, PH1 Publication, Third edition, 2008

Reference Books:
Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne, Operating System Concepts, 6th Edition, Addition Wesley.

Course Synopsis: Fundamental concept of uniprocessor operating system. Evolution process management, Memory management, File systems, I/O processing.

Goal: This course introduces fundamental concepts of contemporary uniprocessor operating systems.

Course Contents:

Unit 1: (6 Hrs)
1.1 Historical background: Operating system evolution, hardware review, operating system structure. Overview of operating system: batch system, multiprogramming, time- sharing, real- time, mainframe operating systems, personal computer operating systems, system calls.

Unit 2: (14 Hrs)
2.1 Process management: Process creation, process termination, process states, attributes; thread creation, termination, process scheduling.
2.2 Interprocess communication and synchronization: race conditions, critical regions, mutual exclusions, busy waiting, sleep and wakeup, semaphores, monitors, message passing, classical IPC problems and deadlock.

Unit 3: (13 Hrs)
3.1 Memory management: Absolute and relocable partition multiprogramming, swapping, overlays, virtual memory, paging, page replacement algorithms, segmentation, segmentation with paging.
3.2 File Systems: file system interface, file system implementation.

Unit 4: (12 Hrs)
4.1 Device management: I/O hardware and software, software layers.
4.2 Disk management: Disk structure, Disk scheduling, error handling and formatting, RAID, stable storage management.
4.3 Case studies (Linux and Window 2000)

Laboratory Works:
Small programming assignments of process creation, termination, deletion, thread creation, terminations, singles handling, process synchronization, process communication, classical IPC problems, file system and I/O handling.

Homework assignments covering lecture materials will e given throughout the semester.

Computer Usage:
Unix or Linux base PC or workstation.

Prerequisites: C, Data structures and Computer Organization.

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text Books:
1. M. Morris Mano, “Computer System Architecture”, Prentice-Hall of India, Pvt. Ltd., Third edition, 2007

Reference Books: W.Chency and D. Kincaid, “Numerical Mathematics and Computing.” 2nd Edition, Brooks/ Cole Publishing Co. , 1985 , C.F. Gerald and P.O. Wheatley, “Applied Numerical Analysis,” 4th Edition, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, New York, W.H. Press, B.P. Flannery et.al. “Numerical Recipes in C”, 1st Edition, Cambridge Press, 1988 , S. Yakwitz and F. Szidarovszky, “An introduction to Numerical Computations”, 2nd Edition, Macmillian Publishing Co., New York.

Course Synopsis: This course contains the concept of numerical techniques of solving the differential equations and algebraic equations.

Goal: To be familiar with the theory of numerical analysis for solving algebraic equations, solution of ordinary and partial differential equations related to engineering problems

Course Contents:

Unit 1. Solution of Nonlinear Equations: (10 Hrs)
Review of calculus and Taylor’s theorem, Errors in numerical calculations, Trial and error method, Half -interval method, and convergence, Newton’s method, secant method and their convergence, Fixed point iteration and its convergence, Newton’s method for polynomials and Horner’s method.

Unit 2. Interpolation and Approximation: (8 Hrs)
Lagrang’s polynomials, Newton’s interpolation using difference and divided differences, Cubic spline interpolation, Least squares method for linear and non linear data

Unit 3. Numerical Differentiation and Integration: (5 Hrs)
Newton’s differentiation formulas, Maxima and minima of tabulated function, Newton – Cote’s quadratic formulas , Trapeziodal rule, Simpson’s rule, 2D algorithm, Gaussian integration algorithm, Romberg integration formulas

Unit 4. Solution of Linear Algebraic Equations: (10 Hrs)
Review of the existence of solutions and properties of matrices, Gaussian elimation method , pivoting, Ill- conditioning, Guess-Jordan method, Inverse of matrix using Gauss elimation method, Method of Factorization, Dolittle algorithm, Cholesky’s factorization, Iterative solutions, Eigen values and eigen vectors problems, Solving eigen value problems using power method.

Unit 5. Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations: (7 Hrs)
Review of differential equations, Initial value problem, Taylor series method, Picard’s method, Euler’s method and its accuracy, Heun’s method, Runge-Kutta methods, Solving System of ordinary differential equations, Solution of the higher order equations, Boundary value problems, Shooting method and its algorithm

Unit 6: Solution of Partial Differential Equations (5 Hrs.)
Review of partial differential equations, Classification of partial differential equation, Deriving difference equations, Laplacian equation and Poisson’s equation, engineering examples

Laboratory Works:
The laboratory exercise should consist program development and testing of non-linear equations, system of linear equations, interpolation, numerical integration and differentation, linear algebraic equations, ordinary and partial differential equations.Numerical solutions using C or Matlab

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)

Text Books:
Agrawal, Govind Ram, Principles of Management, M.K. Publisher & Distributors, Kathmandu, Kreitner, Robert, Management, 1999.

Reference Books: Robbins, Stephen P ., and Coulter, Mary, Management, Prentice- Hall of India, New Delhi,2002 , Griffin, Ricky, Management, Houghton-Miffin, USA 1998.

Course Synopsis: Evolution of management and management theories related with planning, organizing, and controlling business activity.

Goal: This course presents a systematic coverage of management theory and practice .Therefore it focuses on the basis roles, skills and function of management, with special attention to managerial responsibility for effective and efficient achievement of goals.

Course Contents:

Unit 1. Introduction (3 Hrs)
Definition of management, Characteristic of management, Principles of management, Function of management

Unit 2. Evolution of Management Theory (6 Hrs)
Scientific management theory, Administrative management theory, Behavior science theories, the management science theory, the system approach, the contingency approach

Unit 3. The Environment of Management (6 Hrs)
Concept of business environment, Internal and external environment, Components of political, economic, socio-cultural and technological environment, Social responsibility, Management ethics

Unit 4. Planning and Decision Making (8 Hrs)
Definition and importance of planning, Types of Planning- Corporate,tactical,and operational plans; Single used and standing plans; Specific and flexible plans, Hierarchy of planning, Methods , steps and process of planning, MBO,Meaning of decision making, Types of decision making- Programmed – non programmed; Strategic, tactical and operational and Individual and group decision making

Unit 5. Organizational and Human Resource Management (6 Hrs)
Definition and characteristics of organization, Types of organization- Line, Line and staff, functional and matrix type of organization, Centralization Vs decentralization, Meaning of HRM,Components of HRM- Acquisition, development, utilization and maintenance

Unit 6. Motivation, Leadership and Conflict (8 Hrs)
Meaning of motivation, Motivation theories-Hierarchy of needs theory; Motivation-hygiene theory; and Theory X- Theory Y, Meaning of leadership, Leadership styles-Autocratic, democratic and free rein and Managerial grid theory, Meaning and sources of conflict, Conflict resolution-Avoidance, defusion, containment and confrontation

Unit 7. Communication and Controlling (8 Hrs)
Meaning and process of communication, Types of communication- Formal and informal communication and Interpersonal and non verbal communication, Barriers to effective communication, Techniques for improving communication, Meaning of Controlling, Types of control system-Pre control; concurrent control and post control, Characteristic of effective control system, Introduction of MIS

Assignments: Home works shall be given to the students with emphasis on small cases.

Sophomore Year / Fourth Semester

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)

Text Books:
John E. Hopcroft, Rajiv Motwani, Jeffery D. Ullaman, Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation, Second Edition, Addison-Wesley, 2011. ISBN: 81-7808-347-7

Reference Books: Efim Kinber, Carl Smith, and Theory of Computing: A Gentle introduction, Prenctice-Hall, 2001.ISBN: 0-13-027961-7 , John Martin, Introduction to Languages and the theory of computation, 3rd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2003.ISBN: 0-07-0499939-x , Harry R .Lewis and Christos H. Papadimitriou, Elements of the Theory of Computation, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 1998.

Course Synopsis: Deterministic and non- deterministic finite state machines, regular expressions, languages and their properties. Context free grammars, Push down automata, Turing machines and computability, undecideable and intractable problems, and Computational complexity.

Goal: To gain understanding of the abstract models of computation and formal language approach to computation.

Course Contents:

Unit 1: (14 Hrs)
1.1 Review of Mathematical Preliminaries: Sets, Logic, Functions, Relations, Languages and proofs.
1.2 Finite Automata: Deterministic and Non- deterministic Finite Automata, Equivalence of Deterministic and Non- deterministic Finite Automata with Epsilon-Transition.
1.3. Regular Expression and languages, Equivalence of Regular Expressions and Finite Automata, Algebraic Laws for Regular Expressions, Properties of Regular Ranguages, Pumping Lemma for Regular Languages, Minimization of Finite State Machine.

Unit 2: (11 Hrs)
2.1 Context –Free Grammar, Parse Trees, Derivation and Ambiguity, Normal Forms (CNF and GNF) of context -Free Grammar, Regular Grammars, Closure Properties of context- Free Languages, Proving a Language to be Non –Context – Free.
2.2 Push Down Automata (PDA), Languages of PDA, Deterministic and Non- deterministic PDA, Equivalences of PDA’s and CFG’s.

Unit 3: (10 Hrs)
3.1 Introduction to Turing Machines, Computation by Turing Machines, Variants of Turing Machines, Non- deterministic Turing Machines, Turing Enumerable Languages.
3.2 Church’s Thesis and Algorithm, Universal Turing Machines, Halting Problems, Turing Machines and Computers.

Unit 4: (10 Hrs)
4.1 Undecidability: Recursive and Recursively Enumerable Languages, Encoding of Turing Machine, Universal Languages, Unrestricted Grammars and Chomsky Hierarchy, Unsolvable Problems by Turing Machines, Undecidable Problems, Post Correspondence Problems.
4.2 Computational Complexity and Intractable Problems, Measuring Complexity, Class P, Class NP, NP- Completeness and problem Reduction, NP –Complete Problems.

Homework Assignments:
Homework assignments will be given throughout the semester covering the lecture materials in each unit. The homework assignments will cover the 30% of the internal evaluation.

Discrete Mathematics, Fundamentals of Computer Programming and Data structure & algorithms.

Evaluation and Grading:
The evaluation and grading includes the 20% weitage for homework assignments and 2 mid term exam and 80% weitage for the final semester exam.

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text Books:
Jeffery A. Hoffer, Joey F. George, Joseph S.Valacich, Modern Systems Analysis and Design, Pearson Education, Second Edition

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Systems Analysis and Design. Jeffery L. Whitten, Lionnie D. Bentley, 5th Edition, System Analysis and Design Methods , Grady Booch, Pearson Education, Object Oriented analysis and design with applications.

Course Synopsis: This course helps launch the careers of successful systems analyst- or of users assuming an active role in building system that satisfy their organization’s information needs. Also provides a solid foundation of systems.

Goal: This course will provide the concept of system representation.

Course Contents:

Unit 1: Overview of Systems Analysis and Design (4 Hrs)
Introduction to system analysis and design. Types of Information Systems and Systems Development, Developing Information Systems and the Systems Development Life cycle, Systems analysis and design tools

Unit 2: Modeling Tools for system Analyst (5 Hrs)
Modeling with Data Flow Diagrams, Drawing DFDs with CASE, Modeling with Entity-Relationship Diagrams

Unit 3. Structured Methodologies (6 Hrs)
The need for a Structured Methodology, CASE as an Enabling Technology, Advantages and Disadvantages of Modeling and Data Dictionaries, Other Specification Tools

Unit 4. System Analysis (8 Hrs)
System planning and Initial Investigation, Information Gathering, The tools of Structured Analysis, Feasibility Study, Cost /Benefit Analysis, Design of Program module/ Library, Test Design

Unit 5. System Design (8 Hrs)
The process and Stages of system Design, Input/ Output Forms Design, File Organization and Data Base Design

Unit 6. System Implementation (6 Hrs)
System Testing and quality Assurance, Implementation and Software Maintenance, Hardware/ Software Selection and the Computer Contract, Project Scheduling and Software

Unit 7. Object -Oriented Analysis and Design (8 Hrs)
Object-Oriented Development Life Cycle, the Unified Modeling Language, Use- Case Modeling, Object Modeling: Class Diagrams, Dynamic Modeling: State Diagrams Dynamic Modeling: Sequence Diagramming, Analysis Verses Design

Case Studies:
Students must have to do one case study covers all chapters.

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text Books:
A. Silberschatz, H.F. Korth, and S. Sudarshan, Database System Concepts, 4th Edition,McGraw Hill (ISBN: 0-07-120413)

Reference Books: C.J. Date , An Introduction to Database Systems, 8th Edition, Addison Wesley ,
Raghu Ramakrishnan, and Johannes Gehrke, Database Management Systems, McGraw-Hill,
2003. (ISBN: 0-07-246563-8) , Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe, Fundamentals of
Database Systems, 4th Edition, Pearson Addison Wesley; 2003, ( ISBN:0321122267).

Course Synopsis: This is a first database course for B.Sc. Computer Science and Information Technology students. It introduces the fundamentals of database technology. Topics covered include: Database Concepts, Database System Architecture E-R Model, relational model, and database design theory, database languages, transaction management, concurrency control, and database recovery.

There are two principles objectives for this course.

  • To introduce the fundamental concepts and the methods necessary for the design and use of a database systems.
  • To provide practical experience in applying these concepts and methods using commercial database management systems.

Course Contents:

Unit 1: (17 Hrs)
Introduction: Characteristics of database approach, Advantages of using DBNS, Database concept and architecture , Data Abstraction, Data Models, Instances and schema , Data independence, schema architecture, Database Languages, Database Manager, Database Administrator, Database Users

Data models: Entity-relationship Model: Entities and entity sets, Relationship and Relationship sets, attributes, Mapping constraints, Keys, Weak and Strong entity types, E-R Diagrams, Reducing E-R diagrams to Tables, Specialization and Generalization,Aggregation,Design E-R Database Schema

Relational Model: Structure of Rational Database, The Relational Algebra, The Tuple Relational Calculus, The Domain Relational Calculus, Modifying the Database, Views.

Historical Models: basic concepts of Hierarchical and Network Models.
Relational Commercial Languages: SQL and Query By Example (QBE)

Unit 2: (14 Hrs)
Integrity & Security: Domain Constraints, Referential Integrity, Assertion and Triggers, Authorization & Authentication, Data encryption.

Theory of Database design: Functional dependencies, trivial and non trivial dependencies, closure of a set of functional dependencies, irreducible sets of dependencies.

Normalization: non loss decomposition and functional dependencies, first, second, and third normal forms, Dependency preservation, Boyce-Codd normal form.

Unit 3: (14 Hrs)
Transaction Processing: Desirable properties of transactions, Implementation of atomicity and durability, Concurrent executions, Schedules and recoverability, testing for Serializability.

Concurrency Control: Overview of Concurrency Control, Locking techniques, Lock-based protocols, Timestamp-based protocols, Commit protocols, Optimistic technique, Granularity of data items, Timestamp ordering multi version concurrency control, Deadlock handling- detection and resolution.

Database Recovery: Failure Classification, The Storage Hierarchy, Transaction Model, Log Based recovery, Buffer Management, Checkpoints, Shadow Paging, Failure with Loss of Non-volatile Storage.

Laboratory Works:
The course involves a mini project using any one of the popular Commercial database packages like Oracle, MySql, MS SQL Server, and MS Access etc.

Be Familiar with at least one high-level programming language such as C, C++ or Java. Introduction to Operating Systems, Data structures and Algorithms.

Homework assignments can be given according to the course covered throughout the semester.

Computer Usage:
Windows or Linux based PC or workstation, Commercial database package installed in the Database server.

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text/References Books:
Foley, J.D., A.V. Dam, S.K. Feiner, J.F. Hughes, Computer Graphics Principle and Practices,Addison Wesley Longman, Singapore Pvt.Ltd., 1999, Hearn Donald, M.P. Baker, Computer Graphics, 2E, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2000.

Course Synopsis: This Graphics hardware, software, and application, data structures for graphics, graphics languages, models for 2D and 3D objects, clipping, hidden surface elimination, depth buffer, raster graphics, shading rendering, splines tools.

Goal: The objective of this course is to understand the theoretical foundation of 2D and 3D graphics.

Course Contents:

Unit 1. (5 Hrs)
Introduction, Advantages of Computer Graphics, Area of Applications, Hardware and Software for Computer Graphics. (Hard Copy, Display Technologies), Random Scan Display System, Video Controller Random Scan Display Processor. Raster Graphics, Scan Conversion, Algorithms (Line, Circle, Ellipse), Area Filling (Rectangle, Ellipse), Clipping (Lines, Circle, Ellipse), Clipping Polygons.

Unit 2. (10 Hrs)
Geometrical transformations, Homogenous coordinates,2D and 3D Transformations, Matrix Representations, Window to View Port Transformation. 3D Viewing, Projections, Mathematics of Projections.

Unit 3. (15 Hrs)
3D Object Representation, Representing Curves and Surfaces, (Polygons Meshes, Parametric Cubic Curves, Quadratic surfaces), Solid Modeling (Sweep Representation, Boundary Representation, Spatial Partitioning Representation)

Unit 4. (12 Hrs)
Visible Surface Determination, Various Techniques, Algorithms for Visible Surface Detection, (Z- Buffer, List priority, Scan Line Algorithms), Shading and Illumination models

Unit 5: 3D Objects Representation (7 Hrs.)
Introduction to virtual Reality and Animation.

Laboratory Works:
All algorithms covered in the text to be implemented in PHIGS/OpenGL in C/C++.

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs.) + Lab (3 Hrs.)

Text Books:
1. Thinking about consciousness / David Papineau, Oxford: Clarendon Press New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
2. Copeland, Jack: Artificial Intelligence: A Philosophical Introduction. Blackwell Publishers.
3. Cognition in a digital world / edited by Herre van Oostendorp, Mahwah, N.J.: L.Erlbaum Associates, 2003
4. The evolution and function of cognition / Felix Goodson, Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2003.

Course Synopsis: An introduction to cognitive science and its relation with other sciences. It covers briefly the area of Artificial Intelligence, Computational models and connectionist approach.


  1. The student will gain an introductory understanding of what it means to say that intelligence is computational The student will:
    1. Acquire a good understanding of what an algorithm is and learn how to implement algorithms in the programming language LISP
    2. Develop an introductory understanding of formal models for computation, the limits of computation, the Chomsky hierarchy, and the Turing-Church hypothesis
  2. The student will study some of the modern attempts to demonstrate a computational model for intelligence through an introduction to the discipline of artificial intelligence, including introductions to knowledge representation, search, and artificial neural networks.
  3. Finally, the student will explore some of the positions taken in the ongoing discussion of this issue. In Philosophy and Linguistics, we will begin with Descartes, and look (and discuss) Turing, Gelernter, Newell and Simon, Penrose, Searle, and others, finishing with a partial response to Descartes given to us by Chomsky and others.

Course Contents:

Unit 1. Introduction to the Problem [6 Hrs.]
Cognitive Science and other Science, Descartes, Marr, Algorithms and Computation, Turing’s response to Descartes, Application related system in the Cognitive Science.

Unit 2. Brief Introduction to Artificial Intelligence [13 Hrs.]
History and background of Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge representation, Human information processing and problem solving, Search, Expert system, Introduction of Neural Networks.

Unit 3. Computation [11 Hrs.]
Introduction, Basic Model for Computation, The Turing Machine, Computational and Language: the Chomsky hierarchy, The Physical Symbols Systems Hypothesis, Illustration of practical examples.

Unit 4. Approaches [15 Hrs.]
The connectionist approach, Different models and tool: Gelernter, Penrose, Pinker, Searle; Response to Descartes: Natural Language Processing, Parameters in the Natural Language Processing.

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs))

Text books:
Truck, Christopher & John Krikman. Effective Writing: Improving scientific, technical and business communications. Second edition. London and New York: E & FN Spoon, 1989. First Indian Reprint, 2003. ISBN 0-19-14660-1.

Futherford, Andreas J. Basic Communications Skills for Technology. Second Edition. Pearson Education, 2001. First Indian Reprint, 2001. ISBN 81-7808-281-0.

Course Synopsis: This course offers a number of tools for writing in technical fields, by presenting clear explanations of key concepts and skills in written communication. The writing process is placed in a systems approach that integrates readings, planning, writing, and revising. Other features include suggestions about how to select, organize and present information in reports, papers and other documents.

Goal: This course presets the types of writing skills students need to have for a career in technology.

Course Contents:

Unit 1. [15 Hrs.]
Turk & Kirkman, Writing is communicating, Thinking about aim and audience, Organization and layout of information, the use of headings and numberings, Rutherfoord, Foundations (audience, language an style, organization), Grammar Units (subjects and verbs, agreement: pronouns; pronoun references; avoiding shifts; modifiers; clause and simple sentence; compound sentences; complex an d compound – complex sentences; fragments, run-ones, and comma splices; transition words; parallelism).

Unit 2. [15 Hrs.]
Turk & Kirkman, Algorithms for complex possibilities and procedures, style for Readability, Writing with a computer, Informative summaries, Choosing and using tables, illustrations and graphic presentation techniques; Rutherfoord, , Writing Elements, (Technical definitions, technical descriptions, summaries, graphics, instructions, comparisons and contrast), Mechanics Units, (Capital letters; abbreviations and acronyms; end punctuation; commas; parentheses; dashes, brackets, ellipses, slashes, and hyphens; apostrophes; quotations).

Unit 3. [15 Hrs.]
Turk & Kirkman, Writing instructions, Writing descriptions and explanations, Writing letters and memoranda, Writing minutes and reports of proceedings, Writing in Examinations: Rutherfoord, Formes of Technical Communications (technical reports; forms, memos, and e-mail; business; letters; presentations; the job search: resume and letters), Appendices (common symbols and abbreviations; tips for word processing; sample reports; irregular verbs; job applications.

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