Freshman Year / First Semester

Nature of Course: Theory (4 Hrs) + Lab (4 Hrs)

Text Books:
1. Alexis Leon, Mathews Leon, “Fundamentals of Information Technology, 2/e”. Vikas Publishing House Pvt Limited, 2009, ISBN: 9788182092457
2. E Balagurusamy, “Fundamentals of Computers,” Tata McGraw Hill Education PVT. Ltd., 2009, ISBN: 9780070141605
Peter Norton’s, “Introduction to Computers”, 7 th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2010, ISBN: 978007061201

Reference Books:
1. Brad Dayley & DaNae Dayley, “Adobe Photoshop CS6 Bible”, Wiley Publishing Inc., 2012, ISBN: 978-1-118-12388-1
2. Faithe Wempen, “Microsoft Office Power Point 2007 Bible (With CD)”, Wiley Publishing Inc., 2007, ISBN: 978-0470043684
3. Herb Tyson, “Microsoft Office Word 2007 Bible (with CD)”, Wiley Publishing Inc., 2007.
4. Jim Boyce, “Windows 7 Bible”, Wiley Publishing Inc., 2009, ISBN: 978-0470509098
5. John Walkenbach, “Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Bible (With CD)”, Wiley Publishing Inc., 2007, ISBN: 978-0470044032
6. Pradeep Sinha and Priti Sinha, “Computer Fundamentals (with CD)”, 6 th Edition, BPB Publications, 2003, ISBN: 9788176567527
7. Ramesh Rimal & et. Al., “Computer Science-I, Revised Edition”, Buddha Academic Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd. Nepal, 2013
8. Ramesh Rimal & et. Al., “Computer Science-II, Revised Edition”, Buddha Academic Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd. Nepal, 2013

Course Synopsis: This course offers fundamental concepts of computer and computing which includes introduction to computer system, computer software & database management system, operating system, data communication & computer network and contemporary technologies. It also aims at helping students convert theoretical concept into practical skill through the use of different application packages including work processor, spreadsheet package, presentation package and photo editing graphical package.

Goal: The general objectives of this course are to provide fundamental concepts of information and communication technology and to make students capable of using different application packages in their personal as well as professional life.

Course Contents:

Unit 1: Introduction to Computer System (16 Hrs.)
Introduction to Computer, Characteristics of Computer, Applications of Computer, Classification of Computer, Mobile Computing, Anatomy of a Digital Computer, Computer Architecture, Memory & Its Classification, Input devices, Output devices, Interfaces.

Unit 2: Computer Software (3 Hrs.)
Introduction to Software, Types of Software, Program vs. Software, Computer Virus and Antivirus.

Unit 3: Operating System (4 Hrs.)
Introduction to Operating System, Function of Operating System, Types of Operating System, Open Source Operating System.

Unit 4: Database Management System (8 Hrs.)
Introduction to DBMS, Database Models, SQL, Database Design and Data Security, Data Warehouse, Data Mining, Database Administrator

Unit 5: Data Communication and Computer Network (10 Hrs.)
Introduction to communication system, Mode of Communication, Introduction to Computer Network, Types of Computer Network, LAN Topologies, Transmission Media, Network Devices, OSI Reference Model, Communication Protocols, Centralized vs. Distributed System.

Unit 6: Internet and WWW (6 Hrs.)
Internet: Introduction to Internet and its Applications, Connecting to the Internet, Client/Server Technology, Internet as a Client/Server Technology, Email, Video- Conferencing, Internet Service Providers, Domain Name Server, Internet Address, Internet Protocols (IP, TCP, HTTP, FTP, SMTP, POP, Telnet, Gopher, WAIS), Introduction to Intranet, Internet vs. Intranet vs. Extranet, Advantages & Disadvantages of Intranet

World Wide Web (WWW): World Wide Web and Its Evolution, Architecture of Web, Uniform Resource Locator (URL), Browsers: Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Opera, Firefox, Chrome, Mozilla; Search Engine, Web Servers: Apache, IIS, Proxy Server; HTTP Protocol, FTP protocol.

Unit 7: Contemporary Technologies (13 Hrs.)
Multimedia e-Commerce, e-Learning, e-Governance, e-Banking, Hypermedia, Geographical Information System, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Artifical Intelligence, Ambient Intelligence, Robotics, Bit Coin.

Laboratory works: Laboratory works should cover all the units and topics mentioned below and a project work should be carried out by students individually implementing the concept and skill learnt in this course.

Unit 1: Operating System (10 Hrs.)

  • GUI Based OS (5 Hrs.): Interface, GUI vs. CUI, Introduction to Windows Features, Elements of Windows, Task Bar, Using Menus and Submenus, Opening a Program, Opening Multiple Program, Using Short Cuts, Using My Computer, Switching off the System, Desktop and Custom Wall Papers, Screen Saver, Using Help for Interactive Learning . Using General Accessories: Notepad, Paint Tool, Clip Board, Character Map, Calculator, etc.; Using Multimedia: Using CD/DVD/BD, Using Audio/Video; Using Explorer to Manage Files and Folders: Copy/Delete/Rename/Short Cuts; Recycle Bin and Its Uses. Using Format, Scandisk and Disk Defragmenter, Windows Installation and Setting.

  • CUI Based OS (5 Hrs.): Introduction to DOS, DOS Internal Commands, and DOS External Commands.

Unit 2: Word Processor (12 Hrs.)
Introduction to Word Processor, Features of Word Processor, Elements of Word Window, Creating & Saving Document, Copy Paste and Cut Paste, Format Painter, Undo and Redo, Print Preview, Printing Documents, Fonts, Effect and Character Formatting, Paragraph Formatting, Styles, Finding, Replacing and Selection, Cover Page, Blank Page, Page Break, Working with Table, Inserting Picture, Clip Art, Shapes Smart Art and Chart, Hyperlink, Bookmarks, Cross-Referencing, Header, Footer, Page Number, Working with Text Box, Quick Parts, Word Art, Drop Cap, Signature Line, Date & Time, Object, Equation Symbol, Working with Themes, Page Margins, Page Orientation, Page Size, Columns Handling, Hyphenation, Watermark, Page Color, Page Borders, Indentation, Arranging Objects, Table of Contents, Footnote and Endnote, Citation and Bibliography, Captions, Inserting Index, Table of Authorities, Mail Merge, Spelling and Grammar, Thesaurus, Translation, Word Count, Comments, Tracking, Changes, Compare, Protecting Document, Document Views, Ruler, Gridlines, Document Map, Thumbnails, Zooming, Window Handling, Creating and Using Macro.

Unit 3: Spreadsheet Package (12 Hrs.)
Introduction to Spreadsheet Package, Features of Spreadsheet Package, Introduction to Microsoft Excel, Elements of Excel Window, Cell Referencing in Excel: Relative, Absolute and Mixed; Managing Workbooks, Worksheets, Windows, Working with Worksheet, Printing Worksheet, Using Formulas/functions; Formatting/Conditional Formatting Data & worksheet; Using Paste Special, Essential Worksheet Functions, Using Templates, Protecting the file and Worksheet with Passwords; Working with Graphic Objects: Clip Art, Word Art, Map; Working with Charts. Working with Internal Database, Getting More Power from Worksheet Databases, Accessing External Databases, Loan Amortization Scheduling and Calculation; Data Validation, Consolidating and Outlining, Using What- if Analysis: Data Table, Goal Seek, Scenario Manager; Understanding Pivot Tables, Constructing and Analyzing Pivot Tables, Using Custom Controls on Worksheets, Effectively Using the Macro Recorder

Unit 4: Presentation Package (6 Hrs.)
Introduction, Creating and Saving Presentation; Entering, Editing, and Enhancing Text; Editing in different views- Outline View, Slide Sorter View; Creating Graphs, Editing and Enhancing Graphs; Adding Clip Art in Slide, Editing Arts, Animating Charts and Art Objects, Adding Sound, Choosing Sound Effects-Transitional, From Other Sources; Adding Sounds to Animations and Sound Objects; Recording Sound and Narration; Adding Movie in Slides, Playing and Editing Movie, Making Movie Poster and Icon; Slide Show, Settling Slide Transition, Speed and Slide Advancement; Rehearsing Slide Display Timing, Slide Notes and Comments; Editing Text Color, Creating Custom; Background and Schemes; Linking and Embedding Objects; Importing and Exporting Presentation, Printing Slides and Handouts

Unit 5: Photo Editing Package (20 Hrs.)

Graphics Basics: Bitmap Vs. Vector- Based Graphics, Color/Bit Depth and Image Resolution, Graphic File Formats, Optimizing Web Graphics, Regular Text Vs. Anti- Aliased Text, Pixel Size Vs. Smart Resize, Regular Graphics Vs. Interlaced Graphics, Lossy Compression Vs. Lossless Compression, Dithered Graphics Vs. Non-Dithered Graphics, Standard Selection Vs. Floating Selection, Tolerance, Opacity.

Introduction to Color: Color Modes- RGB, CMYK, Grayscale, LAB, Bitmap; Hue, Saturation, and Brightness; Browser Safe Colors; Shadows, Highlights and Midtones of an image.

Interface, Tools and Options

Environment:About Photoshop, the Photoshop Interface, Setting up a new Photoshop document, Saving a new document, The Default Palettes, Working with Photoshop Palettes, Te Photoshop Toolbox and Options bar, Using Guides and Ruler,

Image and Color Basics: Supported import and export image formats, Opening an Image in Photoshop, Creating Images In Photoshop, Saving Images In Photoshop, Basic Image Editing, Changing Image Size, Cropping an Image, Changing Color/Bit Depth, Optimizing Images using Save for Web, Working with Color in Photoshop

Tools: Parts of the Toolbox, Toolbox Shortcuts, Tools Options, Marquees, Magic wand, Lassos, Move tool, Crop tool, Slice tools, Pencil, Paintbrush, Eraser tools, History brushes, Clone tamp-Pattern stamp, Healing brush tool, Retouch tool, Gradient, Paint bucket, Burn-Dodge-Sponge, Blur-Sharpen-Smudge, Shapes-line-rectangle-polygon- custom shapes, Path selection tool, Pen tool, Type tools, Notes tool-Audio annotation. Eyedropper-Color sampler-Measure tool, Hand-Zoom, Quick mask-screen modes, Jump to Image Ready, Back ground and Foreground.

Transforms: Using free transform, Move, Rotate, Scale, Skew, Distort, Perspective, Flip- vertical, horizontal, Invert, Rotate 180 o , Rotate 90 o CW, Rotate 90 o CCW.

Layers, Channels and Actions

Photoshop Layers: About Layers-Fill and Adjustment Layers, The Layer Palette, Naming Layers, Creating Layers, Deleting Layers, Viewing Layers, Moving Layers, Layer Opacity, Locking Layers, Merging Layers, Layer Modes and Blending Options, Image Composting Using Layers.

Photoshop Channels: About Channels, The Channel Palette, Creating and Viewing Channels, Modifying Channels, Deleting Channels, Alpha Channels and Mask.

Actions: Using the Action Palette, Recording Action, Playing Action, Editing Action, Loading a Saved Action.

Restoring and Enhancing Images

Restoration of Photos: Restoring Damaged Photos, Photo Retouching. Photo Enhancement and Color Correction: Changing Levels, Changing Curves, Color Balance, Changing Brightness and Contrast, Changing Hue Saturation and Brightness, Changing a Grayscale Image to a Colored Image, Histogram, Gradient Map, Desaturate, Invert, Color Replace, Selective Color, Equalize, Threshold, Channel Mixer, Posterize, Changing Background using Layer Composting.

Text Editing and Special Effects

Text Editing in Photoshop: About the Type Layer, Creating Vertical and Horizontal types, Point and Paragraph Text Creation, Using Horizontal and Vertical Type Mask Tools, Using Character Palette for Text Editing, Choosing a Font, Changing the Type Color, Choosing a Type Size, Specifying Kerning and Tracking, Using Fractional Character Widths, Specifying Baseline Shift, Applying Underline and Strikethrough, Text Alignment and Justification, Specifying Anti-Aliasing Creating Text Warp, Rasterizing Type, Converting Type to Shapes, Adding Effects to Text.

Photoshop Special Effects and Filters: About Special Effects, Using Filters, Basic Filter Examples, Artistic Filters, Distorting Filters, Filter Combinations, Plug-in Filters.

Web Application and Animation

Adobe ImageReady: About Image Ready, Opening Image Ready, The Image Ready Interface, Image Maps, Image Slicing, Basic Animation.

Photoshop for Building Web Interface: About the Interface

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)

Text Books:
1. Anderson, M.L. & Taylor, H. F. (2007). Understanding sociology. New Delhi: Cengage Learning India Private Limited.
2. Bista, D.B. (1996). People of Nepal, Kathmandu: Ratna Prakashan
3. Creswell, J. W. (2011). Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approach. New Delhi: SAGE
4. Haralambos M & Heald R. M. (2006). Sociology: Themes and perspectives. New Delhi: Oxford University Press

Reference Books:
1. Bryman, A.(2008), Social research methods (3rtd ed.), New York, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
2. Central Department of Sociology and Anthropology (1987-2009). Occasional papers in sociology and anthropology, Kathmandu.

Course Synopsis: This course covers several topics of sociology and impact of technology on society that includes basic concept of sociology, organizing social life, social system and social stratification of Nepalese societies, society and technologies and resource in social sciences which are essential to make computer professionals more responsible towards society and social norms and values.

Goal: The main objective of this course is to make student familiar with the discipline of sociology. The goal is to enable them to analyze the Nepalese society and culture: and to understand the relationship between individual, society and culture.

Course Contents:

Unit 1: Basic Concept of Sociology (6 Hrs.)
Definition of sociology, nature and scope of sociology, relationship of sociology with other social sciences.

Unit 2: Organizing Social Life (6 Hrs.)
Society: Population size and distributing, culture community, norms and values, Status and Role, Institutions: Marriage,Family,Kinship and Groups.

Unit 3: Social System & Social Stratification of Nepalese Societies (9 Hrs.)
Social Processes & Socialization. Social and Cultural Change in Nepal, Factors of Social and Cultural change in Nepal, Caste/Ethnicity based Stratification, Gender based Stratification, Religion based Stratification, Ecological based Stratification, National Integration : Historical Process of Nationhood, Cultural Integration (Language, Rituals and Customs).

Unit 4: Society and Technology (12 Hrs.)
Technological Society, Technological Changes in Third World Society, Social and Cultural bases of Technological change, Processes and Patterns of Diffusion of Innovation, Consequences of Technological Development on Nepalese Society, Accountability of Computer Professionals towards Society.

Unit 5: Research in Social Science (12 Hrs.)
Concept of Research in Social Science, Understanding the Concept of Research Methods, Techniques and Tools: Interview, Focus Group Discussion, Observatio9n, Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Method in Social Research, Research Proposal and its Components: Identification of Research Problem, Formulation of Objectives, Research Design, Formation of hypothesis/research questions, Sampling design, tool and methods of data collection. Analysis and Presentation of Data, Research Report Writing and Presentation. Computer Software’s on Social Science Research.

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs) + Tutorial (1 Hr)

Text Books:
1. Boeckner, Keith and P. Charles Brown. Oxford English for computing. London: Rutledge, 1993

Course Synopsis: This course aims at helping students combine the knowledge of the English language with their technical knowledge with special emphasis on vocabulary acquisition and grammatical accuracy. It offers up-to-date technical content, authentic reading and listening passages covering a wide range of topics like the use of virtual reality in industry, personal computing, viruses and security, information systems, and multimedia/ Letter-writing section offers a complete guide to writing work-related letters and comprehensive glossary of technical terms forms a useful mini-dictionary of computing terminology.

Goal: The main objective of the course is to:

  • Impart effective language ski8lls to students and enable them to use language accurately, clearly and concisely,
  • Acquaint students with language used in computer study through intensive reading activity,
  • Help them to enhance their ability to use language in proper way with specific focus on grammatical accuracy and writing competence,
  • Enable students to improve work related letter writing skills with special attention to presentation and structure, and
  • Familiarizes them with Inovation in computer science while introducing them with language used in this field

Course Contents:


Unit 1: (1 Hrs.)

  1. Personal computing
    The processor
    Language focus A: Contextual reference
  2. Portable computers
    Operating systems
    Language focus B: word formation, prefixes
  3. Online Services
    Data transmission
    Language focus C: Word formation, suffices

Unit 2: (12 Hrs.)

  1. Computer Software
    Computer Software Packages
    Language Focus D: Making Comparisons
  2. Computer Networks
    Network Configurations
    Language Focus E: Time sequence
  3. Computer in education
    Language focus app giving examples
  4. Virtual Reality
    VR input devices
    Language focus G: Classifying


Unit 3: (9 Hrs.)

  1. Programming and languages
    C Languages
    Language Focus H: Organizing Information
  2. Computer Viruses
    Computer Security
    Language Focus I: Listing
  3. Computers in the Office
    Computer System
    Language Focus J: The Passive

Unit 4: (6 Hrs.)

  1. Computers In Medicine
    Data Storage and Management
    Language Focus K: Explanations and Definitions
  2. Robotics
    Robert Characteristics
    Language Focus L: Compound Noun

Unit 5: (9 Hrs.)

  1. Machine Translation
    AI and Expert System
    Language Focus M: Cause and Effect
  2. Multimedia
    Language Focus N: Making Predictions
  3. Computer Graphics
    24 bit color
    Language Focus O: Letter Writing

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs), Tutorial (1 Hr.), Practical (1 Hr.)

Text Books:
1. Thomas G. B, Finney , R.S. , “Calculus with Analytic Geometry”, Addison Wesley, 9th Edition.

Reference Books:
1. Bajracharya D. R., Shrestha , R. M. & et al, “Basic Mathematics I, II” Sukunda Pustak Bhawan, Nepal
2. Budnick , F.S., “Applied Mathematics for Buisness, Economics and the Social Sciences”, McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited.
3. Monga G. S., “Mathematics for Management and Economics”, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
4. Paudel, K.C., GC. F. B., and et.al, “Higher Secondary Mathematics”, Asmita Publication & Distributors Pvt. Ltd, Nepal.
5. Upadhayay, H. P., Paudel, K.C & ct al , “Elements of Business Mathematics”, Pinnacle Publication.
6. Yamane, T. “Mathematics for Economist” , Prentice-hall of India.

Course Synopsis: This course includes several topics from algebra and analytical geometry such as set theory and real & complex number; relation, function and graphs; sequence and series; matrices and determinants; permutation & combination; conic section and vector in space which are essential as mathematical foundation for computing.

Goal: The general objective of this course is to provide the students with basic mathematical skills required to understand Computer Application Courses.

Course Contents:

Unit 1: Set Theory and Real & Complex Number (7 Hrs.)
Concept, Notation and Specification of Sets, Types of Sets, Operations on Sets (Union, Intersection, Difference, Complement) and their Venn diagrams, Laws of Algebra of Sets (without proof), Cardinal Number of Set and Problems Related to Sets. Real Number System, Intervals, Absolute Value of Real Number. Introduction of Complex Number, Geometrical Representation of Complex Number, Simple Algebraic Properties of Complex Numbers (Addition, Multiplication, Inverse, Absolute Value)

Unit 2: Relation, Functions and Graphs (8 Hrs.)
Ordered pairs, Cartesian product, Relation, Domain and Range of a relation, Inverse of a relation; Types of relations: reflective, symmetric, transitive, and equivalence relations. Definition of functions, Domain and Range of a function, Inverse function, Special functions (Identity, Constant), Algebraic (linear, Quadratic, Cubic), Trigonometric and their graphs. Definition of exponential and logarithmic functions, Composite functions. (Mathematics)

Unit 3: Sequence and Series (7 Hrs.)
Sequence and Series (Arithmetic, Geometric, Harmonic), Properties of Arithmetic, Geometric, Harmonic sequences, A.M., G.M., and H.M. and relation among them. Sum of Infinite Geometric Series. Taylor’s Theorem(without proof), Taylor’s series, Exponential series.

Unit 4: Matrices and Determinants (8 Hrs.)
Introduction of Matrices, Types of Matrices, Equality of Matrices, Algebra of Matrices, Determinant, Transpose, Minors and Cofactors of Matrix. Properties of determinants (without proof), Singular and non-singular matrix, adjoin and inverse of matrices, Linear transformations, Orthogonal transformation; rank of matrices. (Matlab)

Unit 5: Analytical Geometry (8 Hrs.)
Conic Sections: Definition ( Circle , Parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola and Related Terms), Examples to Explain The Defined Terms, Equations and Graphs of The Conic Sections Defined Above, Classifying The Defined Conic Sections by Eccentricity and Related Problems, Polar Equations Of Lines, Circles, Ellipse, Parabolas, and Hyperbolas. (Mathematica / Matlab)

Vectors in Space: Vectors in Space, Algebra of Vectors in Space, Length, Distance Between Two Points, Unit Vector, Null Vector, Scalar Product, Cross Product of Two and Three Vectors and Their Geometrical Interpretations and Related Examples. (Matlab)

Unit 6: Permutation and Combination (7 Hrs.)
Basic Principle of Counting, Permutation of a. Set of objects All Different b. Set of Objects Not All Different c. Circular Arrangement d. Repeated Use of The Same Object, Combination of Things All Different, Properties of Combination.

Laboratory works: Mathematica and/ or Matlab should be used for above mentioned topics.

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs), Practical (2 Hrs.)

Text Books:
1. Floyd, “Digital Fundamentals” , PHI 2. Morris Mano , “Digital Design” , Prentice Hall of India 3. Tocci. R.J, “Digital systems- Principles and applications” –Prentice Hall of India

Reference Books:
1. B.R. Gupta and V.Singhal , “Digital Electronics” 4th Edition, S.K Kataria and sons, India.
2. Fletcher.W.I., “An Engineering Approach to Digital Design”, Prentice Hall of India.
3. Millman and Halkias, “Integrated Electronics”
4. V.K.PURI, “Digital Electronics”, TMH

Course Synopsis: This course presents an introduction to Digital Logic techniques and its practical applicaiton in computer and digital system.

Goal: The course has the following specific objectives:

  • To perform conversion among different number systems
  • To simplify logic functions
  • To design combinational and sequential logic circuit
  • To understand industrial application of logic system
  • To understand Digital IC analysis and its application
  • Designing of programmable memory

Course Contents:

Unit 1: Introduction (2 Hrs.)
1.1. Digital Signals and Wave Forms
1.2. Digital Logic and Operation
1.3. Digital Computer and Integrated Circuits
1.4. Clock Wave Form

Unit 2: Number Systems (2 Hrs.)
2.1. Binary, Octal, & Hexadecimal Number Systems and Their Conversions
    2.1.1. Representation of Signed Numbers-Floating Point Number
    2.1.2. Binary Arithmetic
2.2. Representation-of BCD-ASCII-Excess 3 –Gray Code –Error Detecting and Correcting Codes.

Unit 3: Combinational Logic Design
3.1. Basic Logic Gates NOT , OR and AND
3.2. Universal Logic Gates NOR and NAND
3.3. EX-OR and EX-NOR Gates
    3.3.1 Postulates & Theorems     3.3.2 Canonical Forms-Simplification of Logic Functions
3.4. Boolean Algebra
3.5 Simplification of Logic Functions Using Karnaugh Map
    3.5.1 Analysis of SOP and POS Expression 3.6 Implementation of combinational Logic Functions
    3.6.1 Encoders and Decoders 3.6.2 Half Adder and Full adder
3.7 Implementation of Data Processing Circuits
    3.7.1 Multiplexers and De-Multiplexers
    3.7.2 Parallel Adder-Binary Adder-Parity Generator/Checker Implementation of Logic functions Using Multiplexers
3.8 Basic Concepts of Programmable Logic
    3.8.1 PROM
    3.8.2 EPROM
    3.8.3 PAL
    3.8.4 PLA

Unit 4: Counters and Registers (16 Hrs.)
4.1 RS,JK,JK Master-Slave, D and T Flip flops
    4.1.1 Level Triggering and Edge Triggering
    4.1.2 Excitation Tables
4.2 Asynchronous and Synchronous Counters
    4.2.1 Ripple Counter: Circuit and State Diagram and Timing Waveforms
    4.2.2 Ring Counter: Circuit and State Diagram and Timing Waveforms
    4.2.3 Modulus 10 Counter: Circuit and State Diagram and Timing Waveforms
    4.2.4 Modulus Counters(5, 7, 11) and Design Principle, Circuit Diagrams and
State Diagrams     4.2.5 Synchronous Design of Above Counters, Circuit Diagrams and State Diagrams 4.3 Application of Counters
    4.3.1 Digital Watch
    4.3.2 Frequency Counter
4.4 Registers
4.4.1 Serial in Parallel out Register
4.4.2 Serial in Serial out Register
4.4.3 Parallel in Serial out Register
4.4.4 Parallel in Parallel out Register
4.4.5 Right Shift, Left Shift Register

Unit 5: Sequential Logic Design (6 Hrs.)
5.1 Basic Modes of Sequential Machines

  • Concept of state
  • State Diagram
5.2 State Reduction through Partitioning and Implementation of synchronous sequential Circuits
5.3 Use of Flip-Flops in Realizing the Models
5.4 Counter Design

Laboratory works: 1. Gates using Active and Passive Elements
2. Half Adder and Full Adder
3. 16:1 Multiplexer
4. 1:16 De multiplexer
5. Digital Watch by Counters
6. Shift Registers

Freshman Year / Second Semester

Nature of Course: Theory (4 Hrs) + Lab (4 Hrs)

Text Books:
1. Brain W.Kerighan & Dennis Ritchie, “The C Programming Language”, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, 1988, ISBN:978-0131103627
2. Byrons S. Gotterfried, “Programming with C, 3/e”, McGraw Hill Education India, 2013, ISBN: 978-0-07-014590-0

Reference Books:
1. AI Kelley, Ira Pohl, “A Book on C”, 4th Edition, Pearson Education, 1998, ISBN: 978-0201183993
2. Deitel & Deitel, “C: How to program”, 7th Edition, Pearson Education, 2012, ISBN: 9780273776840
3. E Balagurusamy, “Programming in ANSI C, Sixth Edition”, Tata Mc GrawHill, 2012 ISBN: 9781259004612
4. Yeshvant Kanetkar, “Let us C”, 13th Edition, BPB Publication, 2013, ISBN: 978-81-8333-163-0 5. Ramesh Rimal & et.al., “Computer Science-II, Revised Edition”, Buddha Academic Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd. Nepal, 2013

Course Synopsis: This course includes both theoretical as well as practical concept of programming. Practical skills of programming are provided using C language which includes basic concept of C, operators and expressions, basic input output functions, control statements, array and strings, function, pointer, structure and union, file handling and graphics in C.

Goal: The general objective of this course is to provide fundamental concepts of programming language, programming technique and program development using C programming language.

Course Contents:

Unit 1: Programming Language (10 Hrs.)
Introduction to programming language, Types of programming language, language processors, program errors, Features of good program, Different programming paradigm, Software development model, Program development life cycle, System Design tools

Unit 2: Programming Techniques (5 Hrs.)
Introduction to Programming technique, top down and bottom up approach, cohesion and coupling, structure programming, deterministic and non deterministic technique, iterative and recursive logic, modular designing and programming.

Unit 3: Basic Concept of C (5 Hrs.)
Introduction, History , Features, Advantages and disadvantages, structure of C program, Compiling Process, C preprocessor and Header Files, Library function, character set, comments, tokens and its type, data types, escape sequences, pre processor directives.

Unit 4: Operators and Expressions (3 Hrs.)
Arithmetic operator, relational operator, logic operator, assignment operator, increment/decrement operator, conditional operator, bitwise operator, comma operator, sizeof operator, operator precedence and associativity , expression and evaluation, type casting in expression, program statement.

Unit 5: Input and Output (3 Hrs.)
Input/ Output operation, Formatted I/O(scanf, printf), all formatted I/O(getch- putch, getch, getchar-putchar and gets-puts).

Unit 6: Control and Structure (6 Hrs.)
Introduction, Type of control structures (branching: if, if else, if elseif, and switch case, looping: while, do while and for and jumping: goto, break and continue), nested control structure.

Unit 7: Array (6 Hrs.)
Introduction, declaration, initialization, one dimensional array, multi dimensional array, sorting (Bubble, selection, searching sequential), string handling.

Unit 8: User-defined Function (5 Hrs.)
Introduction, components, function parameters, library function vs. user define function, different forms of function, recursion, passing array to function, passing string to function, accessing a function(call by value and call by reference), Macros, Storage class.

Unit 9: Pointer (6 Hrs.)
Introduction, The address(&) and indirection(*) operators, declaration and initialization, pointer to pointer, pointer expressions, pointer automatic, passing pointer to a function, pointer and array, array of pointer, pointer and string, dynamic memory allocation.

Unit 10: Structure (5 Hrs.)
Introduction, Declaration, Initialization, Nested structure, Array of structure, array within structure, passing structure and array of structure to function, structure and pointer bit fields, union and its importance, structure vs. union.

Unit 11: Data file Handling (4 Hrs.)
Introduction, Types of file, opening and closing data file, read and writes function, writing and reading data to and from data file, Updating data file, Random accessing files, printing a file.

Unit 12: Introduction to Top Graphics (2 Hrs.)
Initialization, graphical mode, graphical functions

Laboratory works: Laboratory works Laboratory work should be done covering all topics listed above and small project should be carried out using concept learned in this course only. The project should be assigned on individual basis.

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs); Tutorial (1 Hr.); Practical (1 Hr.)

Text Books:
1. Andrew Thomas & Anne Marie ward, “Introduction to Finalcial Accounting 7/e”, Mc Graw Hill 2012 ISBN: 9780077132682

Reference Books:
1. Narayanaswamy, R., “Financial Accounting: A Managerial Perspective”, prentice Hall of India, New Delhi.
2. Porter, Gray A. Norton, Curtis L., “Financial Accounting: The Impact on Decision Makers,” the Dryden press, USA.

Course Synopsis: This course includes both theoretical as well as practical concept of financial accounting so that students can understand working principle of financial accounting and hence can use the concept in developing application related to financial sector.

Goal: The general objective of this course is to develop conceptual understanding of the fundamentals of financial accounting system.

Course Contents:

Unit 1: Theoretical Framework (4 Hrs.)

Meaning and Scope of Accounting: Meaning of Accounting, Procedural Aspects of Accounting, Evolution of Accounting as a Social Science, Objectives of Accounting, Functions of Accounting, Sub-fields of Accounting, Users of Accounting Information, Relationship of Accounting with Other Disciplines, Limitation of Accounting, Role of Accountant in the Society.

Accounting Concepts, Principles and Conventions: Accounting Concepts, Principles & Conventions – an Overview, Qualitative Characteristics of Financial Statements, Fundamentals

Accounting Assumptions. Accounting Standards: Concepts, Objectives, Benefits & An Overview of Nepal Accounting Standards

Accounting Policies: Meaning, Selection of Accounting Policies and Changes in Accounting Policies

Unit 2: Accounting Process (10 Hrs.)
Books Of Accounts Leading to The Preparation of Trial Balance, Journal Entries, Double Entry System, Advantage of Double Entry System, Concepts of Transaction and Events, Classification of Accounts, Golden Rules of Accounting. Advantages of Journal, Ledger, Trial Balance, Subsidiary Books Including Cash Books, Capital and Revenue Expenditures and Receipts, Contingent Assets and Contingent Liabilities, Errors Including Rectifications Thereof.

Unit 3: Bank Reconciliation Statement (4 Hrs.)
Introductions, Ascertaining the Causes of Differences of Bank Balance in Bank. Column of the Cash-Book and in Pass-Book, Procedure for Reconciling the Cash-Book Balance with the Pass-Book Balance, Importance of Bank Reconciliation Statement.

Unit 4: Depreciation Accounting (4 Hrs.)
Concepts of Depreciation, Objectives for Providing Depreciation, Methods for Providing Depreciation, Accounting for Depreciation.

Unit 5: Inventories (4 Hrs.)
Meaning, basis and Technique of Inventory Valuation, Inventory Recording System, Stock Taking

Unit 6: Preparation of Final Accounts for Sole Proprietors (10 Hrs.)
Concept of Closing Entries in respect of Trading and Profit &Loss Account, Concept of Accrual basis of Accounting, Matching Concept and Dual Aspects, Concept on Manifacturing Account, Preparation of balance Sheet, Arrangement and Classification of Assets and Liabilities.

Unit 7: Introduction to Company accounts (9 Hrs.)
Meaning of Company, Salient Features of Company, Types of Compant, Preparation of Finanacial Ststements, Share Capital and its types, Debentures and its types, Distinction between Debentures and Shares, Issue of Shares and Debentures, Redemption of Preference Shares.

Labratory Works
Laboratory Works should be carried out using any accounting packages (such as Tally, Facr etc.) to implement the concepts discussed in the above mentioned topics.

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs), Tutorial (1 Hr.), Practical (1 Hr.)

Text Books:
1. Thomas G.B, Finney R.S., “Calculus and Analytic Geometry”, Addision- Wesley, 9th Edition.

Reference Books:
1. Monga, G.S., “Mathematics for Management and Economics”, Vikas Publishing House Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Upadhayay, H.P., Paudel, K.C & et al, “ Elements of Business Mathematics”, Pinnacle Publication.
3. Budnick F.S., “Applied Mathematics for Business Economics and the Social Sciences”, McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited.
4. Paudel, K.C., GC. F.B., and et al ,”Higher Secondary Mathematics”, Asmita Publication & Distributors Pvt Ltd, Nepal.
5. Bajracharya D.R., Shrestha , R.M, & et al, “Basic Mathematics I, II”, Sukunda Pustak Bhawan, Nepal.
6. Sthapit, A.B., Bajracharya, P.M and et al, “Fundamentals of Business Mathematics”, Buddha Academic Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd., Nepal 7. Yamane, T “Mathematics for Economist” , Prentice-hall of India 8. Snedden I., “Elements of Partial Differential Equation”, Hill Book Company-McGraw,

Course Synopsis: This course includes the topics from calculus and computational methods such as limits and continuity, differentiation & its applications, integration and its applications, differential equation and different computational techniques which are essential as mathematical foundation for computing.

Goal: This course makes students able to cognize the concept Calculus, Computational methods and their applications in the area of Social Science and Computer Application.

Course Contents:

Unit 1: Limits and Continuity (6 Hrs.)
Limit of a function, Indeterminate forms, Algebraic properties of limit(without proof), Theorems on Limits of Algebraic and Transcendental Function. Continuity of a function, types of discontinuity. Exercises on evaluation of limits and test of continuity. (Mathematica)

Unit 2: Differentiation (6 Hrs.)
Ordered Pairs, Cartesian Product Relation, Domain and Range of a Relation, Inverse of a Relation; Types of Relations: Reflective, Symmetric, Transitive and Equivalence Relations. Definition of Function, Domain and Range of a Function, Inverse function, Special Functions(Identity, Constant) Algebraic (Linear, Quadratic, Cubic), Trigonometric and Their Graphs, Definition of Exponential and Logarithmic functions, Composite Function. (Mathematica)

Unit 3: Application of Differentiation (6 Hrs.)
The derivatives and slope of the curve; Increasing and decreasing function; convexity of curves; maximization and minimization of a function; Differentiation and marginal analysis; price and output; Competitive equilibrium of firm , Illustrations. Drawing graphs of algebraic function by using first and second order derivatives. (Mathematica)

Unit 4: Integration and its Applications (8 Hrs.)
Riemann Integral; Fundamental Theorem (Without Proof); Technique of Integration; Evaluation and Approximation of Definite Integrals; Improper Integrals; Applications of Definite Integrals; Improper Integrals; Applications of Definite Integrals; Quadrate, Rectification; Volume and Surface Integral, Trapezoidal and Simpson’s Rules of Numerical Integration. (Mathematica)

Unit 5: Differential Equations (7 Hrs.)
Differential Equation and its Order and Degree , Differential Equations of First Order and First Degree; Differential Equations with Separable Variables, Homogeneous and Exact Differential Equations.

Unit 6: Computational Method (10 Hrs.)
Linear Programming Problem (LPP), Graphical Solution of LPP in Two Variables, Solution Of LPP by Simplex Method( up to 3 variables), Solution of System of Linear Equations by Gauss Elimination Method, Gauss Seidel Method and Matrix Inversion Method, Biscction method, Newton- Raphson Method for Solving Non –Linear Equations. (Excel/ Matlab)

Laboratory works: Mathematica and/ or Matlab should be used for above mentioned topics.

Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs), Tutorial (1 Hr.), Practical (1 Hr.)

Text Books:
1. Morris Mano.M., Computer System architecture. PHI.

Reference Books:
1. Hamacher. V.C., Vranesia.Z.G and Zaky.S.G., “Computer Organization”, McGraw Hill, New York.
2. Hayes, “Computer System Architecture”, Mc Graw Hill.

Course Synopsis: This course is an introduction to microprocessor and computer architecture. It covers topics in both the physical design of the computer (organization) and the logical design of the computer (architecture).

Goal: The courses have following specific objectives:

  • To explain the microprocessor.
  • To explain the assembly language programming.
  • To explain the overview of computer organization.
  • To explain the principle of CPU system.
  • To explain the principle of memory system.
  • To explain the principle of data flow.

Course Contents:

Unit 1: Fundamentals of Microprocessor (5 Hrs.)
Introduction to microprocessors, Microprocessor systems with bus organization, Microprocessor architecture and operation, 8085 Microprocessor and its operation, 8085 instruction cycle, machine cycle, T states, Addressing modes in 8085, Introduction to 8086.

Unit 2: Introduction to Assembly Language Programming (10 Hrs.)
Assembly Language Programming Basics, Classification of Instructions and Addressing modes, 8085 Instruction Sets, Assembling , Executing and Debugging the programs, Developing counters and Time Delay Routines, Interfacing Concepts.

Unit 3: Basic Computer Architecture (4 Hrs.)
Introduction: History of computer architecture, Overview of computer organization, Memory Hierarchy and cache, Organization of hard disk.
Instruction Codes: Stored Program, Organization-Indirect Address, Computer Registers, Common bus system, Instruction set, Timing and Control-Instruction Cycle.

Unit 4: Micro programmed Control (10 Hrs.)
Basic computer Design of Accumulator: Control of AC register, ALU Organization, Control Memory-Address Sequencing: Conditional Branching, Mapping of Instruction-Subroutines, Micro Program: Symbolic Micro Program, Binary Micro program, Design of Control Unit: Basic Requirement of Control Unit, Micro Program Sequencer.

Unit 5: Central Processing Unit (10 Hrs.)
General Register Organization: Control Word, Stack Organization and Instruction, Formats- Addressing Modes
Data Transfer and Manipulation: Data transfer Instructions, Data Manipulation Instructions, Arithmetic Instructions, Arithmetic Instructions, Logical and Bit Manipulation Instructions, Shift Instructions
Program Control: Status Bit Conditions, Conditional Branch Instructions, Subroutine Call and Return, Program Interrupt, Types of Interrupts.

Unit 6: Pipeline, Vector Processing and Multiprocessors (6 Hrs.)
Parallel Processing, Pipeline Examples: Four Segment Instruction Pipeline, Data Dependency, Handling of Branch Instructions, Vectors Processing: Vector operations, Matrix Multiplication.

Laboratory works: 8085 Assembly Language Program
1. Multi byte Addition and Subtraction, Multi byte decimal addition and subtraction.
2. Adder and substractor circuit.
3. Study of 8259 programmable interrupt controller – Development of interrupt service routine
4. Keyboard/display controller- Keyboard scan- blinking and rolling display.
5. Parallel data transfer
6. Study of Microprocessor development system.

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