Junior Year / Fifth Semester


Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text Books:

  1. Computer Networking; A Top Down Approach Featuring The Internet, 2nd Edition, Kurose James F., Ross W. Keith PEARSON EDUCATION ASIA


Course Synopsis: Discussion on types of networking techniques, Internet, IPV.


Goal: This course introduces concept of computer networking and discuss the different layers of networking model.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. ( 33 Hrs)
1.1 Computer Network: Introduction to networking, computer network, Internet, the network edge: end system, clients, server, connection oriented and connectionless service, network core, network access and physical media, ISPs and back bone.

1.2 Protocol Layers: Introduction, layered architecture, The Internet protocol stack, network entities and layers.

1.3 Application Layer: Introduction, principles of application layer protocols, the web and HTTP, file transfer, Domain Name Service [DNS]: Working of DNS, DNS records, DNS messages.

1.4 Transport Layer: Introduction, relationship between transport layer and network layer, transport layers in the Internet, multiplexing and demultiplexing, connectionless transport, reliable data transfer: Building a reliable data transfer protocol, pipelined reliable data transfer protocol, Go-Back-N (GBN), selective repeat (SR), connection oriented transport: TCP, TCP connection, TCP segment structure, time estimation and time out, flow control, Principle of congestion control: The causes and costs of congestion, approaches to congestion control.

1.5 Network Layer: Introduction, network service model, datagrams and virtual circuit service, routing principles: A link state routing algorithm, the distance vector routing algorithm, hierarchical routing. The Internet protocol (IP): IPV4 addressing, datagram format, IP datagram fragmentation, Internet Control Message Protocol [ICMP], Network address translator, routing in the Internet, IPV6, Multicasting routing.


Unit 2. ( 12 Hrs)
2.1 Link Layer and Local Area Networks: Introduction, Data link layer: the services provided by the link layer, error detection and error correction techniques, multiple access protocols, LAN addresses and Address Resolution Protocol, Ethernet, Wireless Links: IEEE 802.11b, Bluetooth, point to point protocol (PPP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), frame relay.

2.2 Multimedia Networking: Introduction, multimedia networking application, streaming audio and video.

2.3 Network Management: Introduction, The infrastructure for network management.


Laboratory works:
Developing the network system in the small scale.


Assignment:
Assignment should be given from the above units in throughout the semester.


Prerequisite:
C, Digital Logic


Category Content:
Science Aspect: 50% Design Aspect: 50%



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text Books:

  1. Jerry Banks, John S. Carson, Barry L. Nelson, David M. Nicol “Discrete-Event system simulation”, Pearson education.


Reference Books:

  1. G. Gorden, “System Simulation”, Prentice Hall of India M. Law and R.F. Perry, “Simulation: A problem-solving approach”, Addison Wesley publishing company. M. Law and W.D. Kelton, “Simulation Modeling and analysis”, McGraw Hill, 1991.


Course Synopsis: This course provides the discrete and continuous system, generation of random variables, analysis of simulation output and simulation languages.


Goal: This course will provide students the concepts of simulation.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. Introduction to Simulation (6 Hrs)
Continuous and discrete systems, System simulation, Real time simulation, Types of Simulation Models, Steps in simulation Study, Phases of a simulation study, Phases of a simulation study, Advantages of simulation, Limitations of the Simulation Technique, Areas of applications


Unit 2. Simulation of Continuous Systems (5 Hrs)
Queuing system, Markov chains, Differential and partial differential equations


Unit 3. Random Numbers (10 Hrs)
Random Numbers, Random Number Tables, Pseudo Random Numbers, Generation of Random Number, Testing Numbers for Randomness, Uniformity Test, Chi-square test, Testing for auto correlation, Poker Test


Unit 4. Verification and Validation of Simulation Models (6 Hrs)
Model building, verification and Validation, Verification of Simulation Models, Calibration and Validation of Models


Unit 5. Analysis of Simulation Output (8 Hrs)
Estimation methods, Simulation run statistics, Replication of runs, Elimination of internal bias


Unit 6. Simulation Languages (10 Hrs)
Basic concept of Simulation tool, Discrete systems modeling and simulation, Continuous systems modeling and simulation, Data and control, Hybrid simulation, Feedback systems: typical applications.


Laboratory Works:
Laboratory exercises using simulation and modeling packages and student also develop their own simulation software.



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)

Text Books:

  1. T.H. Cormen, C.E. Leiserson, R.L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd Edition, MIT Press, 2001 ISBN: 0-262-530-910.


Reference Books:

  1. G. Brassard and P.Bratley, Fundamentals of Algorithmics, Prentice-Hall, 1996 ISBN: 0-262-530-910.


Course Synopsis: Methods and tools for analyzing different algorithms. Different approaches of designing efficient algorithms like divide and conquer paradigm, greedy paradigm, dynamic programming. Algorithms pertaining various problems like sorting, searching, shortest path, spanning trees, geometric problems etc. NP-complete problems.


Goal: Competency in analyzing different algorithms encountered. Ability to conquer the problem with efficient algorithm using the algorithm development paradigms.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. (10 Hrs)
1.1 Algorithm Analysis: worst, best and average cases, space and time complexities. Mathematical background: asymptotic behavior, solving recurrences.

1.2 Data Structures Review: linear data structures, hierarchical data structures, data structures for representing graphs and their properties. Search structures: heaps, balanced trees, hash tables.


Unit 2. (14 Hrs)
2.1 Divide and Conquer: Concepts, applications, sorting problems (quick, merge), searching (binary), median finding problem and general order statistics, matrix multiplications.

2.2 Greedy Paradigm: Concepts, applications, Knapsack problem, job sequencing, Huffman codes.

2.3 Dynamic Programming: Concepts, applications, Knapsack problem, longest common subsequence, matrix chain multiplications.


Unit 3. ( 21 Hrs)
3.1 Graph Algorithms: breadth-first and depth-first search and their applications, minimum spanning trees (Prim’s and Kruskal’s algorithms), shortest path problems (Dijkstra’s and Flyod’s algorithms), algorithm for directed acyclic graphs (DAGs).

3.2 Geometric Algorithms: Concepts, polygon triangulation, Convex hull computation.

3.3 NP Completeness: Introduction, class P and NP, cooks theorem, NP complete problems: vertex cover problem.

3.4 Introduction: Randomized algorithms concepts, randomized quick sort, approximation algorithms concepts, vertex cover problem.


Prerequisites:
Good programming concepts (any language), Data structures and their properties, mathematical concepts like methods of proof, algorithmic complexity, recurrences, probability.


Assignment:
This course deals with wide range of problem domain so sufficient number of assignments from each unit and subunit should be given to the students to familiarize the concepts in depth.


Labs:
The motive of this course is to provide good theoretical and mathematical background of algorithms and their analysis, however it is advisable to provide programming assignments that aid the students learn the behavior of the algorithms.



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text Books:
E. Rich and Knight, Artificial Intelligence, McGraw Hill, D.W. Patterson, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems, Prentice Hall , P.H. Winston, Artificial Intelligence, Addison Wesley , Stuart Russel and Peter Norvig, Artificial Intelligence A Modern Approach, Pearson, Ivan Bratko, PROLOG Programming for Artificial Intelligence, Addison Wesley.


Course Synopsis: This course introduces the problem solving techniques, problem representation and machine learning.


Goal: The main objective of this course is to provide basic knowledge of Artificial Intelligence, with acquaintance of different search techniques and AI applications.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. Introduction to Artificial Intelligence (4 Hrs)
Artificial Intelligence and related fields, brief history of AI, applications of Artificial Intelligence, Definition and importance of Knowledge, and Learning.


Unit 2. Problem Solving (6 Hrs)
Problem Definition, Problem as a state space search, Problem formulation, Problem types, Well-defined problems, Constraint satisfaction problem, Game playing, Production systems.


Unit 3. Search Techniques (9 Hrs)
Uninformed search techniques – depth first search, breadth first search, depth limit search, and search strategy comparison, Informed search techniques – hill climbing, best first search, greedy search, A* search, Adversarial search techniques-minimax procedure, alpha beta procedure.


Unit 4. Knowledge Representation, Inference and Reasoning (12 Hrs)
Formal logic-connectives, truth tables, syntax, semantics, tautology, validity, well-formed-formula, propositional logic, predicate logic, FOPL, interpretation, quantification, horn clauses, rules of inference, unification, resolution refutation system (RRS), answer extraction from RRS, rule based deduction system, Statistical Reasoning-Probability and Bayes’ theorem and causal networks, reasoning in belief network.


Unit 5. Structured Knowledge Representation (4 Hrs)
Representations and Mappings, Approaches to Knowledge Representation, Issues in Knowledge Representation, Semantic nets, frames, conceptual dependencies and scripts.


Unit 6. Machine Learning (4 Hrs)
Concepts of learning, learning from examples, explanation based learning, learning by analogy, learning by simulating evolution, learning by training neural nets, learning by training perceptrons.


Unit 7. Applications of Artificial Intelligence (6 Hrs)
Expert Systems, Neural Network, Natural Language Processing, Machine Vision


Laboratory Works:
Laboratory exercises should be conducted in either LISP or PROLOG. Laboratory exercises must cover the fundamental search techniques, simple question answering, inference and reasoning.



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text Books:
Matt J. Crouch, ASP.NET and VB.NET Web Programming, Pearson Education Asia, 2002 Rahul Banerjee, Internetworking Technologies, Prentice-Hall of India Limited, Fourth Edition, 2000


Course Synopsis: This course introduces the client server web technology.


Goal: To expose the students with client and server side web programming.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. Introduction: 4 Hrs.
Review of web technology, Review of HTML and JAVA Script


Unit 2. Issues of Web Technology: 6 Hrs.
Architectural issues of web layer, HTTP & FTP Protocols, Tier Technology: 2-Tier, 3-Tier and n-Tier


Unit 3. The Client Tier: 12 Hrs.
Representing content, XML, DTD’s, Schemas, Stylesheets and Transformation: CSS, XSL/XSLT, SAX, and DOM, Client-side Programming


Unit 4. The Server Tier: 20 Hrs.
Web Server Concept, Creating Dynamic Content, Using Control Flow to control Dynamic Control Generation, Sessions and State, Error handling, Authentication, Architecting web application, Using tag libraries, Writing tag libraries


Unit 5. Introduction to Advanced Server Side Issues: 3 Hrs.
Representations and Mappings, Approaches to Knowledge Representation, Issues in Knowledge Representation, Semantic nets, frames, conceptual dependencies and scripts.


Laboratory Works:
The laboratory should cover all the topics mentioned above.



Elective


Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text/Reference books Books:
D.V. Hall, Microprocessors and Interfacing – Programming and Hardware, McGraw Hill , K. J. Ayala, The 8051 Microcontroller: Architecture, Programming and Applications, West Publishing , K.R. Fowler, “Electronic Instrument Design”, New York Oxford, Oxford University Press , E.O. Duebelin, “Measurement System Application and Design” Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.


Goal: The course objective is to apply the knowledge of microprocessor with other digital / analog system and interfacing to design a complete system.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. Interfacing Concept (4 Hrs)
Interfacing, Interfacing Types, Address Decoding, I/O Mapping, Memory Mapping, I/O Memory Mapping, Registers and Input/output Registers, PC Interfacing Techniques.


Unit 2. Digital Interfacing (12 Hrs)
Input/output and Microcomputer, Simple input, Simple output, Programmable Parallel Ports, Handshaking, Single handshaking IO, Double handshaking IO, Introduction to Programmable Peripheral Interface 8255 A, Functional Block Diagram, Different Modes of Operations, Introduction to Programmable Interval Timer 8253 and Difference between 8253 and 8254, Functional Block Diagram, Different Modes of Operation, Keyboard Interfacing, Alphanumeric Display Different Modes of Operation, Keyboard Interfacing, Alphanumeric Display Interfacing, Microcomputer ports Interfacing to high-power devices.


Unit 3. Interrupts & Interrupt Controller (6 Hrs)
Interrupt Vector Tables, Types of Interrupts, Assembly Language program and Interrupt Procedure Hardware interrupts and Applications, Examples of Various ISR, Introduction to Programmable Interrupt Controller 8259, Functional Block Diagram, Operations of Interrupt, Programming of 8259.


Unit 4. Analog Interfacing (5 Hrs)
Operational Amplifier Basics, Sensors and Transducers, Digital to Analog Conversion and Analog to Digital Conversion – Basics, Operations, Specification, Applications and Interfacing, A Microcomputer Based Industry-Process Control System.

Unit 5. Serial and Parallel Data Communication (6 Hrs)
Synchronous and Asynchronous Data Communication, Parity and other error control, Baud rates, Serial Interface Device, Serialization, RS 232 Interface Pin Description, Simplex Connection, Full Duplex Connection, Connection Between DTE to DTE, Connection to Printers and Zero Modem.


Unit 6. Microcontroller & Interfacing (8 Hrs)
General Microcontroller Concept, Pin Configuration, I/O Port Structure, Memory Organization, Special Function Registers, External Memory, Reset Operations, Instruction Set, Timer Operation, Serial Port Operation, Interrupt Design and Processing, Assembly Instructions and Programming.


Unit 7. Grounding and Shielding (4 Hrs)
Outline for grounding and shielding, Single point grounding and grouped loop, Noise, noise coupling mechanism and prevention, Filtering and smoothing, Different kinds of shielding mechanism, Protecting against electrostatic discharge, Line filters, isolators and transient suppressors.


Laboratory Works:
Assembly language based programming: PPI, ADC and various interfacing with RS232, Printer Port should be experimented. At the semester end, individual project work based on microcontroller for industry process control should be done.


Lab exercise may comprise some of the followings:

  1. Assembly language programming
  2. Simple data transfer using PPI
  3. Handshake transfer using PPI
  4. Interfacing of A/D converter using PPI
  5. Interfacing of A/D using Micro controller
  6. Interfacing of A/D converter using Printer port
  7. Demonstration of other interfacing techniques and devices
  8. Writing an interrupt Service Routine



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text/Reference books Books:
Arindama Singh, Logics for Computer Science, Prentice Hall of India, Irving M. Copi, Symbolic Logic, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall of India.


Course Synopsis: This course contains the main feature of different logics.


Goal: The course objective is to provide the basic concepts and techniques of the logics used in computer science.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. Introduction (4 Hrs)
Introduction to Logic, Nature of Argument, Truth and Validity, Symbolic Logic, Statements, Conditional Statements, Statement Forms


Unit 2. Deduction and Deductive Systems (6 Hrs)
Formal Proof of Validity, The Rule of Replacement, The Rule of Conditional Proof, The Rule of Indirect Proof, Proofs of Tautologies, Formal Deductive Systems, Attribute of Formal Deductive Systems, Logistic Systems


Unit 3. Propositional Logic (6 Hrs)
Syntax of Propositional Logic, Semantics of Propositional Logic, Calculations, Normal Form, Applications.


Unit 4. Predicate Logic (8 Hrs)
Predicate Logic, Order of Predicate Logic, Syntax of Predicate Logic, Semantics of Predicate Logic, Consequences, Calculations, Normal Form


Unit 5. Resolution & Proofs (10 Hrs)
Resolution, Resolution in Propositional Logic, Unification of Clauses, Resolution in Predicate Logic, Horn Clauses, Proof in Propositional Logic and Predicate Logic, Axiomatic Systems, Adequacy, Compactness, Soundness.


Unit 6. Program Verification (5 Hrs)
Issue of Correctness, Partial Correctness, Hoare Proof, Total Correctness.


Unit 7. Some Other Logics (6 Hrs)
Intuitionistic Logic, Lukasiewicz Logic, Probabilistic Logic, Fuzzy Logic, Default Logic, Autoepistemic Logic.


Laboratory Works:
Laboratory exercises should be conducted in any logic programming language like LISP or PROLOG.



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text/Reference books Books:
Wireless Communications and Networking, Jon W. Mark and Weihua Zhuang, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, 2005. 2. Principles of Wireless Networks, Pahlavan, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, 2005.


Course Synopsis: This course contains the concept of wireless networking technology.


Goal: To provide the concept and working principle for wireless communication and networking.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. Introduction (4 Hrs)
History of wireless communication, Challenges in wireless communication networking, Wireless communication standards.


Unit 2. Wireless Channel Characterization 6 Hrs.
Multipath propagation environment, Linear time-invariant channel model, Channel correlation function, Large-scale path loss and shadowing, Small-scale multipath fading.


Unit 3. Bandpass Transmission Techniques 7 Hrs.
Introduction, Signal space and decision regions, Digital modulation, Power spectral density, Probability of transmission error.


Unit 4. Receiver Techniques for fading Dispersive Channels 5 Hrs.
Overview of channel impairment mitigation techniques, Diversity, Channel equalization.


Unit 5. Fundamental of Cellular Communications 8 Hrs.
Introduction, Frequency reuse and mobility management, Cell cluster concept, Cochannel and adjacent channel interference, Call blocking and delay at the cell-site, Other mechanism for capacity increase, channel assignment strategies.


Unit 6. Multiple Access Technologies 5 Hrs.
Issue of Correctness, Partial Correctness, Hoare Proof, Total Correctness.


Unit 7. Mobility Management in Wireless Networks 5 Hrs.
Introduction, Call admission control (CAC), Handoff management, Location management for cellular networks, Location management for PCS networks, Traffic calculation


Unit 8. Wireless/Wireline Internetworking 5 Hrs.
Introduction, Mobile IP, Internet protocol (IP), Transmission control protocol (TCP), Network performance, Wireless application protocol (WAP), Mobile AD HOC networks.


Laboratory Works:
Laboratory exercises should be conducted in any logic programming language like LISP or PROLOG.



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text/Reference books Books:
1. K. Castlemann, “Digital Image Processing”, Prentice Hall of India Ltd., 1996. 2. A. K. Jain, “Fundamental of Digital Image Processing”, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., 1995. 3. R. C. Gonzalez and P. Wintz, “Digital Image Processing”, Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1987. 4. Sing_Tze Bow, M. Dekker, “Pattern Recognition and Image Processing”, 1992 5. M. James, “Pattern Recognition”, BSP professional books, 1987. 6. P. Monique and M. Dekker, “Fundamentals of Pattern Recognition”, 1989.


Course Synopsis: This course deals with image components.


Goal: To be familiar with processing of the images, recognition of the pattern and their applications.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. Introduction to Digital Image Processing: 4 Hrs.
Digital image representation, Digital image processing: Problems and applications, Elements of visual perception, Sampling and quantization, relationships between pixels


Unit 2. Two-dimensional Systems: 5 Hrs.
Fourier transform and Fast Fourier Transform, Other image transforms and their properties: Cosine transform, Sine transform, Hadamard transform, Haar transform


Unit 3. Image Enhancement and Restoration: 8 Hrs.
Point operations, contrast stretching, clipping and thresholding, digital negative, intensity level slicing, bit extraction, Histogram modeling: Equalization modification, specification, Spatial operations: Averaging, directional smoothing, median, filtering spatial low pass, high pass and band pass filtering, magnification by replication and interpolation


Unit 4. Image Coding and Compression: 4 Hrs.
Pixel coding: run length, bit plan, Predictive and inter-frame coding


Unit 5. Introduction to Pattern Recognition and Images: 3 Hrs.


Unit 6. Recognition and Classification: 5 Hrs.
Recognition classification, Feature extraction, Models, Division of sample space


Unit 7. Grey Level Features Edges and Lines: 6 Hrs.
Similarity and correlation, Template matching, Edge detection using templates, Edge detection using gradient models, model fitting, Line detection, problems with feature detectors


Unit 8. Segmentation: 3 Hrs.
Segmentation by thresholding, Regions for edges, line and curve detection


Unit 9. Frequency Approach and Transform Domain: 3 Hrs.


Unit 10. Advanced Topics: 4 Hrs.
Neural networks and their application to pattern recognition, Hopfield nets, Hamming nets, perceptron


Laboratory Works:
Developing programs of above features.



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)

Text/Reference books Books:
The Knowledge Management Tool Kit, Amrit Tiwana, Pearson Education Asia


Course Synopsis: Study of knowledge intensive organization, knowledge management issues.


Goal: This course introduces fundamental concept of knowledge and different managerial issues in managing the knowledge.


Course Contents:


Unit. 1 (16 Hrs.)
1.1 Introduction of Knowledge Management: Knowledge and its importance,: Definition of Knowledge, Knowledge management, From information to knowledge.
1.2 The Knowledge Edge: A common theme, Intellectual Capital, Drivers of Knowledge Management, Knowledge-centric drivers, Technology drivers, Organizational structure based drivers, Personnel focused drivers, Process drivers, Economic drivers, Creating the knowledge edge.
1.3 From Information to Knowledge: Different between knowledge and information, from data to knowledge, Types of knowledge, the three fundamental steps, Knowledge management systems and existing technology. Business and knowledge.


Unit 2: (20 Hrs.)
2.1 Implementing Knowledge Management: The 10 step knowledge management road map, Infrastructure evaluation, Knowledge management system analysis, Deployment, Metrics for performance evaluation.
2.2 The Leverage Infrastructure: Leveraging the Internet, Aligning knowledge management and business strategy. 2.6 Knowledge Management System Analysis, Design & Development: Infrastructural foundation, Knowledge audit and analysis, Designing the knowledge management team, Creating knowledge management system blue print, Developing the knowledge management system.


Unit 3: 9 Hrs.
3.1 Knowledge Management System Development: Prototyping & development, Reward structure. Downloaded From dwit.edu.np
3.2 Metrics for Knowledge Work: Traditional Metrics, Pitfalls in choosing metrics.
3.3 Code Optimization: The principal sources of optimization, Optimization of basic blocks, loops in flow graphs.


Laboratory Works:
Developing small scale KM project.



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text/Reference books Books:
Computer Networking; A Top Down Approach Featuring The Internet, 2nd Edition, Kurose James F., Ross W. Keith PEARSON EDUCATON ASIA


Course Synopsis: Discussion on types of networking techniques, Internet, IPV.


Goal: This course introduces concept of computer networking and discuss the different layers of networking model.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. 33 Hrs.
1.1 Computer Network: Introduction to networking, computer network, Internet, the network edge: end system, clients, server, connection oriented and connectionless service, network core, network access and physical media, ISPs and back bone.
1.2 Protocol Layers: Introduction, layered architecture, The Internet protocol stack, network entities and layers.
1.3 Application Layer: Introduction, principles of application layer protocols, the web and HTTP, file transfer, Domain Name Service [DNS]: Working of DNS, DNS records, DNS messages.
1.4 Transport Layer : Introduction, relationship between transport layer and network
layer, transport layer in the Internet, multiplexing and demultiplexing, connectionless transport, reliable data transfer: Building a reliable data transfer protocol, pipelined reliable data transfer protocol, Go-Back-N ( GBN ), selective repeat ( SR ), connection oriented transport : TCP , TCP connection, TCP segment structure, time estimation and time out, flow control, Principle of congestion control: That causes and costs of congestion, approaches to congestion control.
1.5 Network Layer : Introduction, network service model, datagrams and virtual circuit service, routing principles: A link state routing algorithm, the distance vector routing algorithm, hierarchical routing, The Internet protocol ( IP ): IPV4 addressing, datagram format, IP datagram fragmentation, Internet Control Message Protocol [ ICMP], Network address translator, routing in the Internet, IPV6, Multicasting routing.


Unit 2. 12 Hrs.
2.1 Link Layer and Local Area Networks: Introduction, Data link layer: the services provided by the link layer, error detection and error correction techniques, multiple access protocols, LAN addresses and Address Resolution Protocol, Ethernet, Wireless Links: IEEE 802.11b, Bluetooth, point to point protocol (PPP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), frame relay.
2.2 Multimedia Networking: Introduction, multimedia networking application, streaming audio and video.
2.3 Network Management: Introduction, The infrastructure for network management.


Laboratory Works:
Developing the network system in the small scale.



Junior Year / Sixth Semester


Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text books Books:
Software Engineering, 7th Edition, Jan Sommerville, PEARSON EDUCATION ASIA


Course Synopsis: Discussion on types of software, developing process and maintaining the software.


Goal: This course introduces concept of software development paradigm and implementing these in real world.


Course Contents:


Unit 1: (11 Hrs)
1.1 Introduction to Software Engineering: Definition of software ,software engineering. Comparing between other engineering and software engineering.

1.2 System Engineering: Introduction to System, System properties, system and their environment, system modeling.

1.3 Software Process: Introduction, software process model, process iteration, software specification, software design and implementation, software validation, software evolution.

1.4 Project Management: Introduction, management activities, project planning, project scheduling, risk management.


Unit 2: (12 Hrs)
2.1 Software Requirements: Introduction, Types of requirements, requirements engineering process: Feasibility study, requirements elicitation and analysis, requirement validation, requirement management.

2.2 Software Prototyping: Introduction, prototyping in the software process, rapid prototyping techniques, user interface prototyping.

2.3 Formal Specification: Introduction, formal specification in software process, interface specification, behavioral specification.


Unit 3: (6 Hrs)
3.1 Architectural Design: Introduction, system structuring, control models, modular decomposition, domain specific architecture.

3.2 Object Oriented Design: Introduction, Features of object oriented design, object oriented software engineering.


Unit 4: (16 Hrs)
4.1 Verification & Validation: Introduction, verification & validation planning, software inspection, cleanroom software development.

4.2 Software Testing: Introduction. types of testing, testing work benches.

4.3 Critical system validation: Introduction, formal methods and critical systems, reliability validation, safety assurance, security assessment.

4.4 Software Cost Estimation: Introduction, productivity, estimation techniques.

4.5 Software Reengineering: Introduction, source code translation, reverse engineering.


Laboratory Works:
Developing the software techniques explained in the course.

Assignments:
Assignments should be given from the above units in throughout the semester.

Prerequisites:
C, C++, data structure, Automata Theory, System analysis & Design



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text/Reference books Books:
Compilers, Principles, Techniques, and Tools, Pearson Education Asia.


Course Synopsis: Analysis of source program. The phases of compiler.


Goal: This course introduces fundamentals concept of compiler and its different phases.


Course Contents:


Unit 1: (6 Hrs)
1.1. Introduction to compiling: Compilers, Analysis of source program, the phases of compiler, compiler-construction tools.

1.2 A single One-Pass Compiler: syntax Definition, Syntax directed translation, Parsing, Translator for simple expression, Symbol Table, Abstract Stack Machines.


Unit 2: (19 Hrs)
2.1 Lexical Analysis: the role of lexical analyzer, Input buffering, specification of tokens, Recognition of tokens, Finite Automata, Regular Expression to an NFA, Design of a lexical analyzer generator 5 hrs.

2.2 Syntax Analysis: The role of parser, Context free grammars, Writing grammars, Top- down parsing, Bottom-up parsing, Operator-preceding parsing, LR parsing, Ambiguous grammar.

2.3 Syntax Directed Translation: Syntax-directed definition, syntax tree and its construction, Evaluation of S-attributed definitions-attributed, Top-down translation, recursive evaluators.

2.4 Type Checking: Type systems, specification of a single type checker, Type conversions.


Unit3: (13 Hrs))
3.1 Intermediate Code Generation: intermediate languages, Declarations, Assignments Statements, Boolean Expressions, Back Patching.

3.2 Code generator: Issue in design of a code generator, the target machine, Run-time storage management, Basic blocks and flow graphs, a simple code generator, peephole organization, Generating code from dags, Dynamic programming code generation algorithm, Code-generator generators.

3.3 Code Optimization: The principle sources of code optimization, Optimization of basic blocks, loops in flow graphs.


Unit 4: ( 7 Hrs)
4.1 Writing a Compilers: Planning a compiler, Approaches to compiler development, the compiler development environment, Testing and Maintenance.

4.2 Comparing some compilers: Pascal Compiler, C compiler, C++ compiler


Laboratory Works:
1. Writing a compiler, optimization techniques, comparing the compilers.
2. Construction of Lexical Analyser.
3. Construction of Parser.
4. Development of Code Generator
5. Write a code to show the function of symbol table.
6. Implement the parsing techniques.
7. Show the application of different types of grammar.
8. Implement the lexical analyzer generator.
9. Implement the type conversation.
10. The course instructor is allowed to create a group two students.



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text/Reference books Books:
1. E-Governance: Concepts and Case Studies, C.S.R. Prabhu, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, 2004. 2. Backus, Michiel, e-Governance in Developing Countries, IICD Research Brief, No. 1, March 2001.


Course Synopsis: This course contains concepts of E-Governance policies and data warehousing / data mining.


Goal: To provide the knowledge of good governance using information and communication technologies and case studies of different countries.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. Introduction 4 Hrs.
E-Governance: Needs of E-Governance, Issues in E-Governance applications and the Digital Divide; Evolution of E-Governance, Its scope and content; Present global trends of growth in E-Governance: Other issues.


Unit 2. Models of E-Governance 10 Hrs.
Introduction; Model of Digital Governance: Broadcasting/ Wilder Dissemination Model, Critical Flow Model, Comparative Analysis Model, Mobilization and Lobbying Model, Interactive-service Model/Government-to-Citizen-to-Government Model (G2C2G); Evolution in E-Governance and Maturity Models: Five Maturity Levels, Characteristics of Maturity Levels, Key areas, Towards Good Governance through E- Governance Models.


Unit 3. E-Governance Infrastructure and Strategies 6 Hrs.
E-readiness: Digital System Infrastructure, Legal Infrastructural Preparedness, Institutional Infrastructural Preparedness, Human Infrastructural Preparedness, Technological Infrastructural Preparedness; Evolutionary Stages in E-Governance.


Unit 4. Data Warehousing and Data Mining in Government 5 Hrs.
Introduction; National Data Warehouses: Census Data, Prices of Essential Commodities; Other areas for Data Warehousing and Data Mining: Agriculture, Rural Development, Health, Planning, Education, Commerce and Trade, Other Sectors. Informatics Centre; E-Governance initiative in USA; E-Governance in China; E- Governance in Brazil and Sri Lanka.


Unit 5. Case Studies 20 Hrs.
Nepalese Context: Cyber Laws, Implementation in the Land Reform, Human Resource Management Software; India: NICNET, Collectorate, Computer-aided Administration of Registration Department (CARD), Smart Nagarpalika, National Reservoir Level and Capacity Monitoring System, Computerization in Andra Pradesh, Ekal Seva Kentra, Sachivalaya Vahini, Bhoomi, IT in Judiciary, E-Khazana, DGFT, PRAJA, E-Seva, E-Panchyat, General Information Services of National


Laboratory Works:
1. Writing a compiler, optimization techniques, comparing the compilers.
2. Construction of Lexical Analyser.
3. Construction of Parser.
4. Development of Code Generator
5. Write a code to show the function of symbol table.
6. Implement the parsing techniques.
7. Show the application of different types of grammar.
8. Implement the lexical analyzer generator.
9. Implement the type conversation.
10. The course instructor is allowed to create a group two students.



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text books Books:
Active Server Pages 3, a Russell Jones, BPB Publications, New Delhi, 2003.


Course Synopsis: This course explores the concepts of developing web technology.


Goal: To provide the knowledge of Web Centric Computing Using Active Server programming.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. Introduction 4 Hrs.
Behind the scenes: Introduction, benefit and application of ASP; Introduction to IIS: Features, properties and application of IIS and MMC, Virtual directory properties; ASP requirements: Need for ASP, Scripting capabilities, Recognizing individuals, Database access, State maintenance, ASP extensibility.


Unit 2. Intrinsic ASP Objects 6 Hrs.
The response object: ASP objects, Sending text with the response object and embedded quotes, Using variables, Other response; The request object; The application and server objects: Threads, Application variables and use, The server object, Limitation of application variables; The session object.


Unit 3. Writing Server-Side Code 8 Hrs.
Coding using VBScript and JScript, The scripting dictionary object, File access with ASP, Debugging ASP and error-handling.


Unit 4. Using Components 5 Hrs.
The browser capabilities component: Difference between browser, Components properties/methods, working and capabilities; Other ASP components; Sending and receiving E-mail with ASP.


Unit 5. Accessing Databases with ASP and ADO 7 Hrs.
Introduction to relational databases and SQL, Introduction to ADO, Accessing data with ADO, Controlling transactions in ASP.


Unit 6. ASP Applications 7 Hrs.
Introduction to ASP applications, State maintenance in ASP applications, Controlling access and monitoring, Planning application, Develop a sample project using ASP.


Unit 7. Advanced ASP 8 Hrs.
Client-side scripting, Building own components, Automating active server pages, Efficiency and scalability.


Laboratory Works:
Exercises covering all features of above.



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs))

Text books:
Truck, Christopher & John Krikman. Effective Writing: Improving scientific, technical and business communications. Second edition. London and New York: E & FN Spoon, 1989. First Indian Reprint, 2003. ISBN 0-19-14660-1.

Futherford, Andreas J. Basic Communications Skills for Technology. Second Edition. Pearson Education, 2001. First Indian Reprint, 2001. ISBN 81-7808-281-0.


Course Synopsis: This course offers a number of tools for writing in technical fields, by presenting clear explanations of key concepts and skills in written communication. The writing process is placed in a systems approach that integrates readings, planning, writing, and revising. Other features include suggestions about how to select, organize and present information in reports, papers and other documents.


Goal: This course presets the types of writing skills students need to have for a career in technology.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. [15 Hrs.]
Turk & Kirkman, Writing is communicating, Thinking about aim and audience, Organization and layout of information, the use of headings and numberings, Rutherfoord, Foundations (audience, language an style, organization), Grammar Units (subjects and verbs, agreement: pronouns; pronoun references; avoiding shifts; modifiers; clause and simple sentence; compound sentences; complex an d compound – complex sentences; fragments, run-ones, and comma splices; transition words; parallelism).


Unit 2. [15 Hrs.]
Turk & Kirkman, Algorithms for complex possibilities and procedures, style for Readability, Writing with a computer, Informative summaries, Choosing and using tables, illustrations and graphic presentation techniques; Rutherfoord, , Writing Elements, (Technical definitions, technical descriptions, summaries, graphics, instructions, comparisons and contrast), Mechanics Units, (Capital letters; abbreviations and acronyms; end punctuation; commas; parentheses; dashes, brackets, ellipses, slashes, and hyphens; apostrophes; quotations).


Unit 3. [15 Hrs.]
Turk & Kirkman, Writing instructions, Writing descriptions and explanations, Writing letters and memoranda, Writing minutes and reports of proceedings, Writing in Examinations: Rutherfoord, Formes of Technical Communications (technical reports; forms, memos, and e-mail; business; letters; presentations; the job search: resume and letters), Appendices (common symbols and abbreviations; tips for word processing; sample reports; irregular verbs; job applications.




Elective – Students have to select minimum of 2 courses.


Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)+ Lab (3 Hrs)

Text Books:
1. Arindama Singh, Logics for Computer Science, Prentice Hall of India 2. Irving M. Copi, Symbolic Logic, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall of India



Course Synopsis: This course contain the main feature of different logics.


Goal: The course objective is to provide the basic concepts and techniques of the logics used in computer science.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. Introduction 4 Hrs.
Introduction to Logic, Nature of Argument, Truth and Validity, Symbolic Logic, Statements, Conditional Statements, Statement Forms


Unit 2. Deduction and Deductive Systems 6 Hrs.
Formal Proof of Validity, The Rule of Replacement, The Rule of Conditional Proof, The Rule of Indirect Proof, Proofs of Tautologies, Formal Deductive Systems, Attribute of Formal Deductive Systems, Logicist Systems


Unit 3. Propositional Logic 6 Hrs.
Syntax of Propositional Logic, Semantics of Propositional Logic, Calculations, Normal Form, Applications


Unit 4. Predicate Logic 8 Hrs.
Predicate Logic, Order of Predicate Logic, Syntax of Predicate Logic, Semantics of Predicate Logic, Consequences, Calculations, Normal Form


Unit 5. Resolution & Proofs 10 Hrs.
Resolution, Resolution in Propositional Logic, Unification of Clauses, Resolution in Predicate Logic, Horn Clauses, Proof in Propositional Logic and Predicate Logic, Axiomatic Systems, Adequacy, Compactness, Soundness.


Unit 6. Program Verification 5 Hrs.
Issue of Correctness, Partial Correctness, Hoare Proof, Total Correctness.

Unit 7. Some Other Logics 6 Hrs.
Intuitionistic Logic, Lukasiewicz Logic, Probabilistic Logic, Fuzzy Logic, Default Logic, Autoepistemic Logic.


Laboratory Works:
Laboratory exercises should be conducted in any logic programming language like LISP or PROLOG.



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs)

Text Books:
Frontiers of Electronic Commerce, 5th Edition, Kalkotia and Whinston, Pearson Education Asia.



Course Synopsis: Discussions on types of commerce, doing business in electronics, infrastructure of electronic commerce.


Goal: This course introduces basic concepts of commerce and discusses the basic needs of electronic commerce.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. (14 Hrs)
1.1 Introduction of Electronic Commerce: Introduction of commerce, Electronic commerce framework, electronic commerce and media convergence, the anatomy of e-commerce application.
1.2 The Network for Electronic Commerce: Need of network, market forces influencing the I-way, components of I-way, network access equipment, and global information distribution network.
1.3 The Internet as a Network Infrastructure: Introduction, the Internet terminology, NSFNET: Architecture and Components, Internet governance: The Internet Society.


Unit 2: (23 Hrs)
2.1 Network Security & Firewalls: Client-Server network security, security threats in client-server, firewalls and network security, data &message security, encrypted documents and electronic mail.
2.2 Electronic Commerce &World Wide Web: Introduction, architectural framework for electronic commerce, WWW as architecture, security in the web.
2.3 Consumer Oriented Electronic Commerce: Introduction, consumer oriented application, mercantile process models, mercantile models from the consumer’s perspective, mercantile models from the merchant’s perspective.
2.4 Electronic Payment Systems: Introduction, types of electronic payment system, digital token based electronic payment systems, smart cards and electronic payment systems, credit cards systems, Threat on electronic payment system.


Unit 3: (8 Hrs)
3.1 Inter-organizational Commerce & Electronic Data Interchange: Introduction, EDI application in the business, EDI: legal, security, and privacy issues, EDI and electronic commerce.
3.2 The Corporate Digital Library: Introduction, dimensions electronic commerce systems, types of digital documents, Issues behind document infrastructure, corporate data warehouses.


Laboratory Works:
Developing the small electronic payment system.



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs.) + Lab (3 Hrs.)

Text Books:
1. Jain K.C. and Aggarwal B.E., Robotics – Principles and Practice, Khanna Publishers
2. Mikell P. Weiss G.M., Nagel R.N., Odraj N.G., Industrial Robotics, McGraw Hill.
3. Ghosh, Control in Robotics and Automation: Sensor Based Integration, Allied Publishers.
4. Schuler, C.A. and McNamee, W.L. Modern Industrial Electronics, Macmillan/McGraw-Hill 5. Klafter R.D., Chimielewski T.A., Negin M., Robotic Engineering – An integrated approach, Prentice Hall of India.



Course Synopsis: This course has the idea of automation and robotics.


Goal: To provide students with information on how to apply robots and manufacturing automated systems with the basic principles underlying the design, analysis and synthesis of robotic systems.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. Introduction 4 Hrs.
Robot definition, Major Components, Human arm characteristics, Geometric motion configuration, Robot Classification, Direct and Indirect Drives, Characteristics of Robot Performance, Historical development of Robot, Degrees of freedom, Asimov’s laws of robotics, dynamic stabilization of robots.


Unit 2. Power Sources and Sensors 8 Hrs.
Hydraulic, pneumatic and electric drives, determination of HP of motor and gearing ratio, variable speed arrangements, path determination, micro machines in robotics, machine vision, ranging, laser, acoustic, magnetic, fiber optic and tactile sensors.


Unit 3. Manipulators, Actuators, and Grippers 8 Hrs.
Manipulators, Classification, Construction of manipulators, manipulator dynamics and force control, electronic and pneumatic manipulator control, End effectors, Loads and Forces, Grippers, design considerations, Robot motion Control, Position Sensing


Unit 4. Kinematic Analysis 10 Hrs.
Manipulator Kinematics, Manipulator Geometry and Degrees of Freedom, Workspace and Joint Space, Coordinate Transformation, Rotation Matrices and Transformation, Homogeneous Transformation, Translation Matrices, Orientation Specification, Rotation Matrices.


Unit 5. Process Control 9 Hrs.
Process Control and Types, On-Off Control Systems, Proportional Control Systems, Proportional Plus Integral (PI) Control Systems, Three Mode Control (PID) Control Systems, Process Control Tuning.


Unit 6. Other Issues 4 Hrs.
Robot Safety, Safety Hazards, Safety Measures, Economic Analysis and Installation, Robot Manufacturing Systems, selection of a robot.



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs.) + Lab (3 Hrs.)

Text Books:
1. Jain K.C. and Aggarwal B.E., Robotics – Principles and Practice, Khanna Publishers
2. Mikell P. Weiss G.M., Nagel R.N., Odraj N.G., Industrial Robotics, McGraw Hill.
3. Ghosh, Control in Robotics and Automation: Sensor Based Integration, Allied Publishers.
4. Schuler, C.A. and McNamee, W.L. Modern Industrial Electronics, Macmillan/McGraw-Hill 5. Klafter R.D., Chimielewski T.A., Negin M., Robotic Engineering – An integrated approach, Prentice Hall of India.



Course Synopsis: This course has the idea of automation and robotics.


Goal: To provide students with information on how to apply robots and manufacturing automated systems with the basic principles underlying the design, analysis and synthesis of robotic systems.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. Introduction 4 Hrs.
Robot definition, Major Components, Human arm characteristics, Geometric motion configuration, Robot Classification, Direct and Indirect Drives, Characteristics of Robot Performance, Historical development of Robot, Degrees of freedom, Asimov’s laws of robotics, dynamic stabilization of robots.


Unit 2. Power Sources and Sensors 8 Hrs.
Hydraulic, pneumatic and electric drives, determination of HP of motor and gearing ratio, variable speed arrangements, path determination, micro machines in robotics, machine vision, ranging, laser, acoustic, magnetic, fiber optic and tactile sensors.


Unit 3. Manipulators, Actuators, and Grippers 8 Hrs.
Manipulators, Classification, Construction of manipulators, manipulator dynamics and force control, electronic and pneumatic manipulator control, End effectors, Loads and Forces, Grippers, design considerations, Robot motion Control, Position Sensing


Unit 4. Kinematic Analysis 10 Hrs.
Manipulator Kinematics, Manipulator Geometry and Degrees of Freedom, Workspace and Joint Space, Coordinate Transformation, Rotation Matrices and Transformation, Homogeneous Transformation, Translation Matrices, Orientation Specification, Rotation Matrices.


Unit 5. Process Control 9 Hrs.
Process Control and Types, On-Off Control Systems, Proportional Control Systems, Proportional Plus Integral (PI) Control Systems, Three Mode Control (PID) Control Systems, Process Control Tuning.


Unit 6. Other Issues 4 Hrs.
Robot Safety, Safety Hazards, Safety Measures, Economic Analysis and Installation, Robot Manufacturing Systems, selection of a robot.



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs.) + Lab (3 Hrs.)

Text Books:
1. Wolf, Wayne, Modern VLSI Design-Systems on Silicon, Third Edition, Pearson
2. Comer, David J. Digital Logic State Machine Design, Third Edition, Oxford University Press
3. Ashenden, Peter J., The Student’s Guide to VHDL, Morgan Kaufman



Course Synopsis: This course introduces the concepts of VLSI design and testing.


Goal: The course objective is to provide ample knowledge on digital design process with the VLSI design procedures and to enhance the knowledge of hardware design applying subsystem design with VHDL and FPGA.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. Introduction 4 Hrs.
Digital Systems and Integration, Electronic Design Automation, IC Manufacturing, Logic Families, IC Design Techniques, IC characteristics: fan-out, power dissipation, propagation delay, and noise margin of TTL and CMOS integrated circuit logic devices.


Unit 2. Logic Manipulation (5 Hrs)
DeMorgan’s Theorem, Canonical Forms, Minterm and Maxterm, implicant, prime implicant, K-Maps, Quine-McCluskey Method


Unit 3. Application Specific Devices (8 Hrs)
PROMs and EPROMs, Programmable Array Logic (PAL), Programmed Logic Array (PLA), Gate Arrays, Programmable Gate Array, Full Custom Design.


Unit 4. State Machine and Design (7 Hrs)
Mealy and Moore machines, state transition tables and diagrams, algorithmic state machine charts, Synchronous State Machine Design, Design of Input Forming Logic and Output Forming Logic of state machine.

Unit 5. VLSI Design (8 Hrs)
Transistors and Layouts, Fabrication Process, Design Rules, Layout design and tools, Logic gates, Combinational Logic Networks and Design, Sequential Systems and Design, Subsystem Design, Various Floor planning Methods, Off-Chip Connections.


Unit 6. Testing (6 Hrs)
Testing and Verification, Testing logic circuits, Combinational gate testing, Combinational network testing, Sequential Testing, Test vector generation, fault, fault model and fault detection, SA0, SA1, Design for Testability.


Unit 6. Hardware Description Languages (6 Hrs)
VHDL and its uses in programmable logic devices (PLDs) like FPGA



Nature of Course: Theory (3 Hrs.) + Lab (3 Hrs.)

Text Books:
1. Thinking about consciousness / David Papineau, Oxford: Clarendon Press New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
2. Copeland, Jack: Artificial Intelligence: A Philosophical Introduction. Blackwell Publishers.
3. Cognition in a digital world / edited by Herre van Oostendorp, Mahwah, N.J.: L.Erlbaum Associates, 2003
4. The evolution and function of cognition / Felix Goodson, Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2003.



Course Synopsis: An introduction to cognitive science and its relation with other sciences. It covers briefly the area of Artificial Intelligence, Computational models and connectionist approach.


Goal:

  1. The student will gain an introductory understanding of what it means to say that intelligence is computational The student will:
    1. Acquire a good understanding of what an algorithm is and learn how to implement algorithms in the programming language LISP
    2. Develop an introductory understanding of formal models for computation, the limits of computation, the Chomsky hierarchy, and the Turing-Church hypothesis
  2. The student will study some of the modern attempts to demonstrate a computational model for intelligence through an introduction to the discipline of artificial intelligence, including introductions to knowledge representation, search, and artificial neural networks.
  3. Finally, the student will explore some of the positions taken in the ongoing discussion of this issue. In Philosophy and Linguistics, we will begin with Descartes, and look (and discuss) Turing, Gelernter, Newell and Simon, Penrose, Searle, and others, finishing with a partial response to Descartes given to us by Chomsky and others.


Course Contents:


Unit 1. Introduction to the Problem [6 Hrs.]
Cognitive Science and other Science, Descartes, Marr, Algorithms and Computation, Turing’s response to Descartes, Application related system in the Cognitive Science.


Unit 2. Brief Introduction to Artificial Intelligence [13 Hrs.]
History and background of Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge representation, Human information processing and problem solving, Search, Expert system, Introduction of Neural Networks.


Unit 3. Computation [11 Hrs.]
Introduction, Basic Model for Computation, The Turing Machine, Computational and Language: the Chomsky hierarchy, The Physical Symbols Systems Hypothesis, Illustration of practical examples.


Unit 4. Approaches [15 Hrs.]
The connectionist approach, Different models and tool: Gelernter, Penrose, Pinker, Searle; Response to Descartes: Natural Language Processing, Parameters in the Natural Language Processing.





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